An in vitro Study on the DNA Damaging Effects of Phytochemicals Partially Isolated from an Extract of Glinus lotoides

Authors

  • Jemal Demma,

    1. Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    2. Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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  • Hesham El-Seedi,

    1. Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, El-Menoufia University, Shebin El-Kom, Egypt
    2. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
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  • Ephrem Engidawork,

    1. Department of Pharmacology, School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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  • Teshome Leta Aboye,

    1. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
    2. Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, School of Pharmacy, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
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  • Ulf Göransson,

    1. Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Division of Pharmacognosy, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
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  • Björn Hellman

    Corresponding author
    • Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Toxicology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
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Correspondence to: Björn Hellman, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Division of Toxicology, Uppsala University, Box 591, SE-751 24 Uppsala, Sweden.

E-mail: bjorn.hellman@farmbio.uu.se

Abstract

An extract of Glinus lotoides, a medicinal plant used in Africa and Asia for various therapeutic purposes, was recently shown to cause DNA damage in vitro. To further explore the potential genotoxicity of this plant, fractionation of the crude extract was performed using reverse phase solid-phase extraction and a stepwise gradient elution of methanol in water. Four fractions were collected and subsequently analysed for their DNA damaging effects in mouse lymphoma cells using an alkaline version of the comet assay. To identify potential genotoxic and non-genotoxic principles, each fraction was then subjected to liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, LC-MS/MS. 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance analyses were used to confirm the identity of some saponins. Although fractions containing a mixture of flavonoids and oleanane-type saponins or oleanane-type saponins alone produced no DNA damage, those containing hopane-type saponins exhibited a pronounced DNA damaging effect without affecting the viability of the cells. To conclude, even if this study presents evidence that hopane-type of saponins are endowed with a DNA damaging ability, further studies are needed before individual saponins can be cited as a culprit for the previously reported genotoxicity of the crude extract of G. lotoides. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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