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Anti-inflammatory Effects of the Zingiber officinale roscoe Constituent 12-Dehydrogingerdione in Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated Raw 264.7 Cells


Correspondence to: Kyuhong Lee, Head of inhalation toxicology center, Korea Institute of Toxicology, 1051, Sinjeong-dong, Jeongeup-si, Jeonbuk, 580-185, Republic of Korea.



Ginger has long been used worldwide as a spice, seasoning, and wine and is also used as a traditional medicine. There have been no previous studies of the potential beneficial effects of the ginger constituent 12-dehydrogingerdione (12-DHGD). We investigated the anti-inflammatory effect of 12-DHGD on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated Raw 264.7 cells. The cytotoxicity of 12-DHGD was measured using the MTT assay, and production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α was measured by ELISA. Production of nitric oxide (NO) was measured using Griess reagent and expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible NO (iNOS) enzymes was assessed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Treatment of Raw 264.7 cells with 12-DHGD significantly inhibited LPS-stimulated production of NO (at 12-DHGD concentrations of 150 and 200 ng/ml), IL-6 (at 50, 100, 150, and 200 ng/ml), and PGE2 (at 200 ng/ml). Consistent with the effects on NO and PGE2 production, 12-DHGD treatment also inhibited the LPS-stimulated increase in iNOS and COX-2 mRNA levels. However, 12-DHGD did not affect production of IL-1β or TNF-α in response to LPS. 12-DHGD, a constituent of ginger, is a potent inhibitor of proinflammatory mediator production in Raw 264.7 macrophage cells. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.