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Effects of Lepidium sativum, Nigella sativa and Trigonella foenum-graceum on Phenytoin Pharmacokinetics in Beagle Dogs

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Abstract

The present work was designed to evaluate the effect of some commonly used herbs viz. garden cress (Lepidium sativum), black seed (Nigella sativa) and fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graceum) on the disposition of phenytoin after oral administration in a dog model. Phenytoin was given orally at a dose of 50 mg, and blood samples were obtained for the determination of drug's pharmacokinetic parameters. After a suitable washout period, animals were commenced on a specific herb treatment for one week. Garden cress treatment caused a modest increase in maximum observed concentration (Cmax) and terminal half-life (T1/2λ) of phenytoin with a reduction in clearance by 33%. The effect of black seed therapy was more drastic on drug elimination and to a lesser extent on its volume of distribution at steady state (Vss) with a consequent reduction in systemic exposure measured by area under the curve (AUC0-∞) by about 87%. The effect of fenugreek therapy resembled, albeit to a lesser extent, that of black seed with a significant reduction in AUC0-∞ by ~72%. In addition, there was a 73% increase in Vss. Our findings suggest that the phenytoin disposition can be significantly altered by the concurrent consumption of tested herbal products. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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