SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Alexander, M. A. and Deser, C. 1995 A mechanism for the recurrence of wintertime midlatitude SST anomalies. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 25, 122137
  • Appenzeller, C., Stocker, T. and Anklin, M. 1998 North Atlantic Oscillation dynamics in Greenland ice cores. Science, 282, 446449
  • Bartlett, M. 1935 Some aspects of the time correlation problem in regard to tests of significance. J. R. Stat. Soc., 98, 536543
  • Basnett, T. A. and Parker, D. E. 1997 ‘Development of the global mean sea level pressure data set GMSLP2’. Climate Research Technical Note 79, Met Office, Bracknell, UK
  • Bjerknes, J. 1964 Atlantic air–sea interaction. Adv. Geophys., 10, 182
  • Bresch, D. and Davies, H. 2000 Covariation of the mid-tropospheric flow and the sea surface temperature of the North Atlantic: A statistical analysis. Theor. Appl. Clim., 65, 197214
  • Bretherton, C. S. and Battisti, D. S. 2000 An interpretation of the results from atmospheric general circulation models forced by the time history of the observed sea surface temperature distribution. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 767770
  • Bretherton, C. S., Smith, C. and Wallace, J. M. 1992 An intercomparison of methods for finding coupled patterns in climate date. J. Climate, 5, 541560
  • Chatfield, C. 1989 The analysis of time series: An introduction. Chapman and Hall, New York, USA
  • Collins, M., Tett, S. and Cooper, C. 2001 The internal climate variability of HadCM3, a version of the Hadley Centre coupled model without flux adjustments. Clim. Dyn., 17, 6181
  • Czaja, A. and Frankignoul, C. 1999 Influence of North Atlantic SST on the atmospheric circulation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 26, 29692972
  • Czaja, A. and Marshall, J. 2000 On the interpretation of AGCMs response to prescribed timevarying ST anomalies. J. Geophys. Res., 27, 19271930
  • Davies, J. R., Rowell, D. P. and Folland, C. K. 1997 North Atlantic and European seasonal predictability using an ensemble of multi-decadal AGCM simulations. Int. J. Climatol., 17, 12631284
  • Folland, C. K., Parker, D. E., Ward, M. N. and Colman, A. 1988 ‘Sahel rainfall, northern hemisphere circulation anomalies and worldwide sea temperature changes’. Pp. 393436 in proceedings of study week on Persistent meteo-oceanographic anomalies and teleconnections, Vol. 69, 23–27 September 1986, Rome, Italy. Eds. C. Chagas and G. Puppi, Pontificiae Academiae Scientiarum Scripta Varia
  • Folland, C. K., Owen, J., Ward, M. N. and Colman, A. 1991 Prediction of seasonal rainfall in the Sahel region using empirical and dynamical methods. J. Forecasting, 10, 2156
  • Frankignoul, C. 1985 Sea surface temperature anomalies, planetary waves and air–sea feed-back in the middle latitudes. Rev. Geophys., 23, 357
  • Frankignoul, C. and Hasselmann, K. 1977 Stochastic climate models, Part II: Application to sea-surface temperature anomalies and thermocline variability. Tellus, 29, 289305
  • Grötzner, A. M., Latif, M. and Barnett, T. P. 1998 A decadal climate cycle in the North Atlantic ocean as simulated by the ECHO coupled GCM. J. Climate, 11, 831847
  • Hall, C. D., Stratton, R. A. and Gallani, M. L. 1995 ‘Climate simulations with the Unified Model: AMIP runs’. Climate Research Technical Note 61, Met. Office, Bracknell, UK
  • Hasselmann, K. 1976 Stochastic climate models. Part I: Theory. Tellus, 28, 473485
  • Hoerling, M., Hurrell, J. and Xu, T. 2001 Tropical origins for recent North Atlantic climate change. Science, 292, 9092
  • Hurrell, J. 1995 Decadal trends in the North Atlantic Oscillation: Regional temperatures and precipitation. Science, 269, 676679
  • Hurrell, J. W. and van Loon, H. 1997 Decadal variations in climate associated with the North Atlantic Oscillation. Clim. Change, 36, 301326
  • Iwasaka, N. and Wallace, J. M. 1995 Large scale air sea interaction in the northern hemisphere from a view point of variations of surface heat flux by SVD analysis. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 73, 781794
  • Kalnay, E., Kanamitsu, M., Kistler, R., Collins, W., Deaven, D., Gandin, L., Iredell, M., Saha, S., White, G., Woollen, J., Zhu, Y., Chelliah, M., Ebisuzaki, W., Higgins, W., Janowiak, J., Mo, K. C., Ropelewski, C., Wang, J., Leetmaa, A., Reynolds, R., Jenne, R. and Joseph, D. 1996 The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc., 77, 437471
  • Kushnir, Y. 1994 Interdecadal variations in North Atlantic sea surface temperature and associated atmospheric conditions. J. Climate, 7, 141157
  • Latif, M. and Barnett, T. P. 1994 Causes of decadal variability over the North Pacific and North America. Science, 266, 634637
  • Latif, M., Arpe, K. and Roeckner, E. 2000 Oceanic control of decadal North Atlantic sea level pressure variability in winter. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 727730
  • Livezey, R. E. 1995 The evaluation of forecasts. P. 334 in Analysis of climate variability. Eds. H. von Storch and A. Navarra. Springer, Berlin
  • Marshall, J., Johnson, H. and Goodman, J. 2001 A study of the interaction of the North Atlantic Oscillation with ocean circulation. J. Clim., 14, 13991421
  • Mehta, V., Suarez, M., Manganello, J. and Delworth, T. 2000 Oceanic influence on the North Atlantic Oscillation and associated northern hemisphere climate variations: 1959–1993. Geophys. Res. Lett., 27, 121124
  • Namias, J. 1964 Seasonal persistence and recurrence of European blocking during 1958–1960. Tellus, 16, 394407
  • 1973 Hurricane Agnes—an event shaped by large-scale air–sea systems generated during antecedent months. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 99, 506519
  • Osborn, T. J., Briffa, K. R., Tett, S. F. B., Jones, P. D. and Trigo, R. 1999 Evaluation of the North Atlantic Oscillation as simulated by a coupled climate model. Clim. Dyn., 15, 685702
  • Palmer, T. N. and Sun, Z. 1985 A modelling and observational study of the relationship between sea surface temperature in the north-west Atlantic and the atmospheric general circulation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 111, 947975
  • Parker, D. E., Jones, P., Folland, C. K. and Bevan, A. 1994 Interdecadal changes of surface temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res., 99, 1437314399
  • Parker, D. E., Folland, C. K., Bevan, A., Ward, M. N., Jackson, M. and Maskell, K. 1995 ‘Marine surface data for analysis of climatic fluctuations on interannual to century timescales’. Pp. 241250 in Natural climate variability on decade-to-century time scales. Eds. D. G. Martinson, K. Bryan, M. Ghil, M. M. Hall, T. R. Karl, E. S. Sarachik, S. Sorooshian and L. D. Talley. National Academy Press, Washington DC, USA
  • Ratcliffe, R. A. S. and Murray, R. 1970 New lag associations between North Atlantic sea temperatures and European pressure, applied to long-range weather forecasting. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 96, 226246
  • Rayner, N. A., Horton, E. B., Parker, D. E., Folland, C. K. and Hackett, R. B. 1996 ‘Version 2.2 of the Global sea-Ice and Sea Surface Temperature data set, 1903–1994’. CRTN 74, Hadley Centre for Climate Prediction and Research, Met Office, Bracknell, UK
  • Robertson, A., Mechoso, C. and Kim, Y.-J. 2000 The influence of Atlantic sea surface temperature anomalies on the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate, 13, 122138
  • Rodwell, M. J. 2001 Atlantic air-sea interaction revisited. In Meteorology at the Millennium. Academic Press
  • Rodwell, M. J., Rowell, D. P. and Folland, C. K. 1999 Oceanic forcing of the winter North Atlantic Oscillation and European climate. Nature, 398, 320323
  • Rogers, J. C. 1990 Patterns of low-frequency monthly sea level pressure variability (1899–1986) and associated wave cyclone frequencies. J. Clim., 3, 13641379
  • Rowell, D. P. 1998 Assessing potential seasonal predictability with an ensemble of multidecadal GCM simulations. J. Clim., 11, 109120
  • Rowntree, P. 1976 Response of the atmosphere to a tropical Atlantic ocean temperature anomaly. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc., 102, 607625
  • Saravanan, R. 1998 Atmospheric low-frequency variability and its relationship to midlatitude SST variability: Studies using the NCAR climate system model. J. Climate, 11, 13861404
  • Sutton, R. T. and Allen, M. R. 1997 Decadal predictability of north Atlantic sea surface temperature and climate. Nature, 338, 563567
  • Sutton, R., Norton, W. and Jewson, S. 2000 The North Atlantic Oscillation—what role for the ocean? Atmos. Science Lett., 0(0), 112, doi:10.1006/asle.2000.0018
  • Sverdrup, H. 1942 Oceanography for meteorologists. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, USA
  • Visbeck, M., Cullen, H., Krahmann, G. and Naik, N. 1998 An ocean model's response to North Atlantic Oscillation-like wind forcing. Geophys. Res. Lett., 25(24), 45214524
  • Walker, G. T. and Bliss, E. W. 1932 World Weather V. Mem. R. Meteorol. Soc., 4, 5384
  • Wallace, J. M. and Gutzler, D. S. 1981 Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the northern hemisphere winter. Mon. Weather Rev., 109, 784812
  • Watanabe, M. and Kimoto, M. 2000 On the persistence of decadal SST anomalies in the North Atlantic. J. Clim., 13, 30173028
  • Yamazaki, K. and Shinya, Y. 1999 Analysis of the Arctic Oscillation simulated by AGCM. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn., 77, 12871298