SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Antonov JI, Locarnini RA, Boyer TP, Mishonov AV, Garcia HE. 2006. Salinity. In World Ocean Atlas 2005, vol 2. Levitus S. (ed.) NOAA Atlas NESDIS 62. US Government Printing Office: Washington DC.
  • Ashok K, Yamagata T. 2009. Climate change: The El Niño with a difference. Nature 461: 481484.
  • Bell MJ, Martin MJ, Nichols NK. 2004. Assimilation of data into an ocean model with systematic errors near the Equator. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 130: 873893.
  • Balmaseda MA, Mogensen K. 2010. ‘Evaluation of ERA-Interim forcing fluxes from an ocean perspective’. ERA Report Series No. 6. ECMWF: Reading, UK.
  • Balmaseda MA, Dee D, Vidard A, Anderson DLT. 2007a. A multivariate treatment of bias for sequential data assimilation: application to the tropical oceans. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133: 167179.
  • Balmaseda MA, Smith GC, Haines GC, Anderson DLT, Palmer TN, Vidard A. 2007b. Historical reconstruction of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation from ECMWF operational ocean reanalysis. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34: L23615, DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031645.
  • Balmaseda MA, Anderson DLT, Vidard A. 2007c. Impact of Argo on analyses of the global ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34: L16605, DOI: 10.1029/2007GL030452.
  • Balmaseda MA, Anderson DLT, Molteni F. 2007d. ‘Climate variability from the new ECMWF System 3 ocean reanalysis’. ECMWF Newsletter 113: 816.
  • Balmaseda MA, Vidard A, Anderson DLT. 2008. The ECMWF Ocean Analysis System: ORA-S3. Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 30183034.
  • Balmaseda MA, Mogensen K, Molteni F, Weaver AT. 2010. ‘The NEMOVAR-COMBINE ocean re-analysis’. COMBINE Technical Report No. 1. http://www.combine-project.eu.
  • Bloom SC, Takacs LL, Da Silva AM, Ledvina D. 1996. Data assimilation using incremental analysis updates. Mon. Weather Rev. 124: 12561271.
  • Bonjean F, Lagerloef GSE. 2002. Diagnostic model and analysis of the surface currents in the tropical Pacific Ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 32: 29382954.
  • Burgers G, Balmaseda MA, Vossepoel F, van Oldenborgh GJ, van Leeuwen PJ. 2002. Balanced ocean-data assimilation near the Equator. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 32: 25092519.
  • Chambers DP. 2006. Evaluation of new GRACE time-variable gravity data over the ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33: LI7603.
  • Church J, White NJ. 2006. A 20th century acceleration in global sea-level rise. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33: L01602, DOI: 10.1029/2005GL024826.
  • Cooper M, Haines K. 1996. Altimetric assimilation with water property conservation. J. Geophys. Res. 101: 10591077.
  • Corre L, Terray L, Balmaseda MA, Ribes A, Weaver AT. 2010. Can oceanic reanalyses be used to assess recent anthropogenic changes and low-frequency internal variability of upper ocean temperature? Clim. Dyn. 38: 877896.
  • Courtier P, Thépaut J-N, Hollingsworth A. 1994. A strategy for operational implementation of 4D-Var, using an incremental approach. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 120: 13671388.
  • Cunningham SA, Kanzow T, Rayner D, Baringer MO, Johns WE, Marotzke J, Longworth HR, Grant EM, Hirschi JJ-M, Beal LM, Meinen CS, Bryden HL. 2007. Temporal variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation at 26°N. Science 317: 935938. DOI: 10.1126/science.1141304.
  • Daget N, Weaver AT, Balmaseda MA. 2009. Ensemble estimation of background-error variances in a three-dimensional variational data assimilation system for the global ocean. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 135: 10711094.
  • Dee DP, Uppala SM, Simmons AJ, Berrisford P, Poli P, Kobayashi S, Andrae U, Balmaseda MA, Balsamo G, Bauer P, Bechtold P, Beljaars ACM, van de Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Delsol C, Dragani R, Fuentes M, Geer AJ, Haimberger L, Healy SB, Hersbach H, Hólm EV, Isaksen L, Kållberg P, Köhler M, Matricardi M, McNally AP, Monge-Sanz BM, Morcrette J-J, Park B-K, Peubey C, de Rosnay P, Tavolato C, Thépaut J-N, Vitart F. 2011. The ERA-Interim reanalysis: Configuration and performance of the data assimilation system. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137: 553597.
  • Domingues CM, Church JA, White NJ, Glecker PJ, Wijffels SE, Barker PM, Dunn JR. 2008. Improved estimates of upper-ocean warming and multi-decadal sea-level rise. Nature 453: 10901093.
  • Ferry N, Parent L, Garric G, Bricaud C, Testut CE, Le Galloudec O, Lellouche JM, Drevillon M, Greiner E, Barnier B, Molines JM, Jourdain NC, Guinehut S, Cabanes C, Zawadzki L. 2012. GLORYS2V1 global ocean reanalysis of the altimetric era (1992–2009) at meso scale. Mercator Quarterly Newsletter 44: 2939. http://www.mercator-ocean.fr/eng/.
  • Fisher M. 1998. Minimization algorithms for variational data assimilation. In Recent Developments in Numerical Methods for Atmospheric Modelling. 364385. ECMWF: Reading, UK.
  • Gill AE. 1982. Atmospheric-Ocean Dynamics. Academic Press: London.
  • Haines K, Valdivieso M, Zuo H, Stepanov VN. 2012. Transports and budgets in a 1/4o global ocean reanalysis 1989–2010. Ocean Sci. 8: 333344.
  • Hazeleger W, Wang X, Severijns C, Stefanescu S, Bintanja R, Sterl A, Wyser K, Semmler T, Yang S, van den Hurk B, van Noije T, van der Linden E, van der Wieland K. 2011. EC-Earth V2: description and validation of a new seamless Earth system prediction model. Clim. Dyn. in press. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-011-1228-5.
  • Ingleby B, Huddleston M. 2007. Quality control of ocean temperature and salinity profiles—historical and real-time data. J. Marine Sys. 65: 158175.
  • Ishii M, Kimoto M. 2009. Re-evaluation of historical ocean heat content variations with time-varying XBT and MBT depth bias corrections. J. Oceanogr. 65: 287299.
  • Jackett DR, McDougall TJ. 1995. Minimal adjustment of hydrographic data to achieve static stability. J. Atmos. Ocean. Technol. 12: 381389.
  • Lee T, Stammer D, Awaji T, Balmaseda MA, Behringer D, Carton J, Ferry N, Fischer A, Fukumori I, Giese B, Haines K, Harrison E, Heimbach P, Kamachi M, Keppenne C, Köhl A, Masina S, Menemenlis D, Ponte R, Remy E, Rienecker M, Rosati A, Schroeter J, Smith D, Weaver AT, Wunsch C, Xue Y. 2010. Ocean state estimation for climate research. In OceanObs'09: Conference on Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society (vol. 2), Venice, 21–25 September 2009. Hall J, Harrison DE, Stammer D (eds). ESA Publication WPP-306. DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.
  • Levitus S, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Locarnini RA, Garcia HE, Mishonov AV. 2009. Global ocean heat content 1955–2008 in light of recently revealed instrumentation problems. Geophys. Res. Lett. 36: L07608, DOI: 10.1029/2008GL037155.
  • Locarnini RA, Mishonov AV, Antonov JI, Boyer TP, Garcia HE. 2006. Temperature. In World Ocean Atlas 2005, volume 1. Levitus S. (ed.) NOAA Atlas NESDIS 61. US Government Printing Office: Washington DC.
  • Lyman JM, Willis JK, Johnson GC. 2006. Recent cooling of the upper ocean. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33: L18604, DOI: 10.1029/2006GL027033.
  • Lyman JM, Good SA, Gouretski VV, Ishii M, Johnson GC, Palmer MD, Smith DM, Willis JK. 2010. Robust warming of the global upper ocean. Nature 465: 334337.
  • Madec G. 2008. ‘NEMO reference manual, ocean dynamics component: NEMO-OPA. Preliminary version’. Note du Pôle de modélisation 27. Institut Pierre-Simon Laplace: Paris.
  • Masina S, Di Pietro P, Storto A, Navarra A. 2011. Global ocean re-analyses for climate applications. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 52: 341366.
  • McDougall TJ. 1987. Neutral surfaces. J. Phys. Oceanogr. 17: 19501964.
  • Meyssignac B, Becker M, Llovel W, Cazenave A. 2012. An assessment of two-dimensional past sea-level reconstructions over 1950–2009 based on tide-gauge data and different input sea-level grids. Surv. Geophys. 33: 945972. DOI: 10.1007/s10712-011-9171-x.
  • Mogensen K, Balmaseda MA, Weaver AT. 2012. ‘The NEMOVAR ocean data assimilation system as implemented in the ECMWF ocean analysis for System 4’. Tech. Memo. 668. ECMWF: Reading, UK.
  • Molteni F, Stockdale T, Balmaseda MA, Balsamo G, Buizza R, Ferranti L, Magnusson L, Mogensen K, Palmer TN, Vitart F. 2011. ‘The new ECMWF seasonal forecast system (System 4)’. Tech. Memo. 656. ECMWF: Reading, UK.
  • Palmer MD, Haines K, Tett SFB, Ansell TJ. 2007. Isolating the signal of ocean global warming. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34: L23610, DOI: 10.1029/2007GL031712.
  • Picaut J, Tournier R. 1991. Monitoring the 1979-1985 equatorial Pacific current transports with expendable bathythermograph data. J. Geophys. Res. 96: 32633277.
  • Ponte RM, Quinn KJ, Wunsch C, Heimbach P. 2007. A comparison of model and GRACE estimates of the large-scale seasonal cycle in ocean bottom pressure. Geophys. Res. Lett. 34: L09603, DOI: 10.1029/2007GL029599.
  • Reynolds RW, Rayner NA, Smith TM, Stokes DC, Wang W. 2002. An improved insitu and satellite SST analysis for climate. J. Climate. 15: 16091625.
  • Ricci S, Weaver AT, Vialard J, Rogel P. 2005. Incorporating temperature-salinity constraints in the background-error covariance of variational ocean data assimilation. Mon. Wea. Rev. 133: 317338.
  • Rio MH, Guinehut S, Larnicol G. 2011. New CNES-CLS09 global mean dynamic topography computed from the combination of GRACE data, altimetry, and insitu measurements. J. Geophys. Res. 116: C07018, DOI: 10.1029/2010JC006505.
  • Saha S, Moorthi S, Pan H-L, Wu X, Wang J, Nadiga S, Tripp P, Kistler R, Woollen J, Behringer D, Liu H, Stokes D, Grumbine R, Gayno G, Wang J, Hou Y-T, Chuang H-Y, Juang H-MH, Sela J, Iredell M, Treadon R, Kleist D, Van Delst P, Keyser D, Derber J, Ek M, Meng J, Wei H, Yang R, Lord S, Van Den Dool H, Kumar A, Wang W, Long C, Chelliah M, Xue Y, Huang B, Schemm J-K, Ebisuzaki W, Lin R, Xie P, Chen M, Zhou S, Higgins W, Zou C-Z, Liu Q, Chen Y, Han Y, Cucurull L, Reynolds RW, Rutledge G, Goldberg M. 2010. The NCEP climate forecast system reanalysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 91: 10151057.
  • Stark JD, Donlon CJ, Martin MJ, McCulloch ME. 2007. OSTIA: An operational, high-resolution, real time, global sea surface temperature analysis system. In Oceans 2007—Europe. 18–21 June 2007, Aberdeen, UK. IEEE.
  • Storto A, Dobricic S, Masina S, Pietro P. 2011. Assimilating along-track altimetric observations through local hydrostatic adjustment in a global ocean variational assimilation system. Mon. Weather Rev. 139: 738754.
  • Troccoli A, Haines K. 1999. Use of Temperature–Salinity relation in a data assimilation context. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 16: 20112025.
  • Uppala SM, Kållberg PW, Simmons AJ, Andrae U, Da Costa Bechtold V, Fiorino M, Gibson JK, Haseler J, Hernandez A, Kelly GA, Li X, Onogi K, Saarinen S, Sokka N, Allan RP, Andersson E, Arpe K, Balmaseda MA, Beljaars ACM, Van De Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Caires S, Chevallier F, Dethof A, Dragosavac M, Fisher M, Fuentes M, Hagemann S, Hólm E, Hoskins BJ, Isaksen L, Janssen PAEM, Jenne R, McNally AP, Mahfouf J-F, Morcrette J-J, Rayner NA, Saunders RW, Simon P, Sterl A, Trenberth KE, Untch A, Vasiljevic D, Viterbo P, Woollen J. 2005. The ERA-40 re-analysis. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131: 29613012.
  • Vidard A, Balmaseda MA, Anderson DLT. 2009. Assimilation of altimeter data in the ECMWF Ocean Analysis System 3. Mon. Wea. Rev. 137: 13931408.
  • Wahr J, Swenson S, Zlotnicki V, Velicogna I. 2004. Time-variable gravity from GRACE: First results. Geophys. Res. Lett. 31: L11501, DOI: 10.1029/2004GL019779.
  • Wahr J, Swenson S, Velicogna I. 2006. Accuracy of GRACE mass estimates. Geophys. Res. Lett. 33: L06401, DOI: 10.1029/2005GL025305.
  • Weaver AT, Courtier P. 2001. Correlation modelling on the sphere using a generalized diffusion equation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127: 18151846.
  • Weaver AT, Vialard J, Anderson DLT. 2003. Three- and four-dimensional variational assimilation with a general circulation model of the tropical Pacific Ocean. Part I: Formulation, internal diagnostics, and consistency checks. Mon. Weather Rev. 131: 13601378.
  • Weaver AT, Deltel C, Machu E, Ricci S, Daget N. 2005. A multivariate balance operator for variational ocean data assimilation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131: 36053625.
  • Wijffels S, Willis J, Domingues CM, Barker P, White NJ, Gronell A, Ridgway K, Church JA. 2009. Changing expendable bathythermograph fall rates and their impact on estimates of thermosteric sea level rise. J. Climate 21: 56575672.
  • Wolff J, Maier-Reimer E, Legutke S. 1997. ‘The Hamburg ocean primitive-equation model’. Tech. Note 13, Deutsches Klimarechenzentrum: Hamburg, Germany.
  • Woodworth PL, Player R. 2003. The Permanent Service for Mean Sea Level. J. Coastal Res. 19: 287295.
  • Willis JK, Chambers DP, Nerem RS. 2008. Assessing the globally averaged sea level budget on seasonal to interannual timescales. J. Geophys. Res. 123: C06015, DOI: 10.1029/2007JC004517.
  • Wunsch C, Heimbach P. 2007. Practical global oceanic state estimation. Pysica D 230: 197208.
  • Xue Y, Alves O, Balmaseda MA, Ferry N, Good S, Ishikawa I, Lee T, McPhaden MJ, Peterson KA, Rienecker M. 2010. Ocean state estimation for global ocean monitoring: ENSO and beyond ENSO. In OceanObs'09: Conference on Sustained Ocean Observations and Information for Society, vol. 2, Venice, 21–25 September 2009. Hall J, Harrison DE, Stammer D. (eds). ESA publication WPP-306, DOI: 10.5270/OceanObs09.
  • Yin Y, Alves O, Oke PR. 2011. An ensemble ocean data assimilation system for seasonal prediction. Mon. Weather Rev. 139: 786808.
  • Zhu J, Huang B, Balmaseda MA. 2011. An ensemble estimation of the variability of upper-ocean heat content over the tropical Atlantic Ocean with multi-ocean reanalysis products. Clim. Dyn. in press. DOI: 10.1007/s00382–011–1189–8.
  • Zhu J, Huang B, Marx L, Kinter III JL, Balmaseda MA, Zhang R-H, Hu Z-Z. 2012. Ensemble ENSO hindcasts initialized from multiple ocean analyses. Geophys. Res. Lett. 39: L09602, DOI: 10.1029/2012GL051503.