Special Issue Article
Synoptic variability of the monsoon flux over West Africa prior to the onset
Article first published online: 24 AUG 2009
Copyright © 2009 Royal Meteorological Society
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Supplement: Advances in understanding atmospheric processes over West Africa through the AMMA field campaign
Volume 136, Issue S1, pages 159–173, January 2010
How to Cite
Couvreux, F., Guichard, F., Bock, O., Campistron, B., Lafore, J.-P. and Redelsperger, J.-L. (2010), Synoptic variability of the monsoon flux over West Africa prior to the onset. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 136: 159–173. doi: 10.1002/qj.473
- Issue published online: 11 MAR 2010
- Article first published online: 24 AUG 2009
- Manuscript Accepted: 8 JUN 2009
- Manuscript Revised: 4 MAY 2009
- Manuscript Received: 2 DEC 2008
- 2009. Multi-scale analysis of the 25–27 July 2006 convective period over Niamey: Comparison between Doppler radar observations and cloud-resolving simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136: s1 191–209. , , , , .
- 2007. African easterly waves during 2004: Analysis using objective techniques. Mon. Weather Rev. 135: 1251–1267. , , .
- 2008. West African monsoon observed with ground-based GPS receivers during African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis (AMMA). J. Geophys. Res. 113: D21105, DOI:10.1029/2008JD010327 , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 1991. Thermodynamic budget of the five day wave over the Saharan desert during summer. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 47: 1–25. , .
- 1984. Precipitable water over Africa and the eastern central Atlantic Ocean during the 1979 summer. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn 62: 761–773. , .
- 1987. Water vapour transport over Africa and the Atlantic Ocean during summer 1979. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 113: 581–602. , .
- 1999. Easterly wave regimes and associated convection over West Africa and tropical Atlantic: Results from the NCEP/NCAR and ECMWF reanalyses. Clim. Dyn. 15: 795–822. , , , , .
- 1990. Convection over tropical Africa and the Atlantic Ocean during northern summer. Part II: Modulation by easterly waves. Mon. Weather Rev. 118: 1855–1868. .
- 1996. Dynamics of wet and dry years in West Africa. J. Climate 9: 1030–1042. , .
- 2007. Atmospheric controls on the annual cycle of North African dust. J. Geophys. Res. 112: D03103, DOI:10.1029/2006JD007195 , .
- 2007. Airborne observations of the impact of a convective system on the planetary boundary layer thermodynamics and aerosol distribution in the inter-tropical discontinuity region of the West African monsoon. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 133: 1175–1189. , , , , , , , .
- 2009. The impact of a mesoscale convective system cold-pool on the northward propagation of the intertropical discontinuity over West Africa. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 135: 139–159. , , , , , , .
- 2007. Dynamics of the West African monsoon jump. J. Climate 20: 5264–5284. , .
- 2007. The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales. J. Hydrometeorol. 8: 38–55. , , , , , , , , .
- ACMAD forecasters team. 2008. Large-scale overview of the summer monsoon over West Africa during the AMMA field experiment in 2006. Ann. Geophys. 26: 2569–2595. , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,
- 2009. Wind profiler observations of seasonal variability of tropospheric dynamics over West Africa. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136: s1 77–91. , , , , .
- 2006. Three-dimensional structure and dynamics of African easterly waves. Part I: Observations. J. Atmos. Sci. 63: 2212–2230. , , .
- 1998. The Meso-NH Atmospheric Simulation System. Part I: Adiabatic formulation and control simulations. Ann. Geophys. 16: 90–109. , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 2009. Seasonal evolution of the West African heat low: A climatological perspective. Clim. Dyn. 33: 313–330. , , , , , , .
- 2008. Observation of the diurnal cycle in the low troposphere of West Africa. Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 3477–3500. , , , .
- 2006. Analysis of convection and its association with African easterly waves. J. Climate 19: 5405–5421. , , .
- 2007. Analysis of the dominant mode of convectively coupled Kelvin waves in the West African monsoon. J. Climate 20: 1487–1503. , , .
- 2008. Correction of humidity bias for Vaisala RS80-A sondes during AMMA 2006 observing period. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 25: 2152–2158. , , , , , , .
- 2005. The diurnal cycle of the West African monsoon circulation. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131: 2839–2860. , , , , , , , , .
- 2007. An idealized two-dimensional framework to study the West African monsoon. Part II: Large-scale advection and the diurnal cycle. J. Atmos. Sci. 64: 2783–2803. , .
- 2007. An idealized two-dimensional framework to study the West African monsoon. Part I: Validation and key controlling factors. J. Atmos. Sci. 64: 2765–2782. , , .
- 1999. The low-level structure of African easterly waves in 1995. Mon. Weather Rev. 127: 2266–2280. , .
- 2006. On the northward shift of the West African monsoon. Clim. Dyn. 26: 429–440. , , .
- 2002. Multi-scale description of a Sahelian synoptic weather system representative of the West African monsoon. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128: 1229–1257. , , , , , , .
- 2006. African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis: An international research project and field campaign. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 87: 1739–1746. , , , , , .
- 1977. The structures and properties of African wave disturbances as observed during Phase III of GATE. Mon. Weather Rev. 105: 317–333. , , .
- 1986. The structure of the Arabian heat low. Part I: Surface energy budget. Mon. Weather Rev. 114: 1067–1083. .
- 2003. The West African monsoon dynamics. Part II: The ‘preonset’ and ‘onset’ of the summer monsoon. J. Climate 16: 3407–3427. , .
- 2005. Observations of synoptic-scale land surface variability and its coupling with the atmosphere. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131: 913–937. , , , .
- 2003. The JET2000 project: Aircraft observations of the African easterly jet and African easterly waves. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 84: 337–351. , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
- 2007. ‘Overview of African weather systems during the summer 2006’. CLIVAR Exchanges 12: 18–20. , , , , , , .
- 1999. Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber-frequency domain. J. Atmos. Sci. 56: 374–399. , .