The transfer of heat and momentum by motion on the scale of cyclone waves and long waves is deduced from a knowledge of their mechanics. The law of horizontal transfer of entropy is independent of notions of mixing but is similar to that for non-isotropic diffusion. The law accurately represents the annual variation of heat-flux in the Northern Hemisphere. Perturbation theory suggests realistic spatial variations for the transfer and provides a rational basis for calculating transfer coefficients which can then be used to find the flux of other conservative quantities. Most importantly the Equatorward flux of potential vorticity is well defined and is shown to determine the horizontal flux of momentum uv. The mean surface winds, and the mean meridional circulation (which is seen to be frictionally driven) are then determined. A model of the general circulation is defined by these properties, and this is integrated analytically for a simplified case and compared with motion observed in the Gulf Stream, the mesosphere, and dishpan experiments as well as the troposphere.
If you can't find a tool you're looking for, please click the link at the top of the page to "Go to old article view". Alternatively, view our Knowledge Base articles for additional help. Your feedback is important to us, so please let us know if you have comments or ideas for improvement.