Marine aerosol concentrations and estimated fluxes over the sea
Article first published online: 15 DEC 2006
Copyright © 1993 Royal Meteorological Society
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Volume 119, Issue 512, pages 809–824, July 1993 Part A
How to Cite
Smith, M. H., Park, P. M. and Consterdine, I. E. (1993), Marine aerosol concentrations and estimated fluxes over the sea. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 119: 809–824. doi: 10.1002/qj.49711951211
- Issue published online: 15 DEC 2006
- Article first published online: 15 DEC 2006
- Manuscript Revised: 4 DEC 1992
- Manuscript Received: 27 SEP 1992
- Procurement Executive, UK Ministry of Defence. Grant Number: 2044/0117 ASWE
Aerosol particulate fluxes, generated at the sea surface by the action of the wind, have been derived from a comprehensive series of measurements taken in the Outer Hebrides, off the west coast of Scotland. These observations cover wind speeds from essentially zero to values in excess of 30 m s−1, and show that the particle production, over the radius range from 1 to 25 μm, is very strongly dependent upon the prevailing wind speed, especially for the larger particles. These fluxes, estimated for a height of about 10 m above the ocean surface, may be approximated by an expression comprising the sum of two log-normal distributions (in particle radius R) of the form:
where the values of fI and R0i remain essentially unchanged with wind speed, but with the values of Ai being strongly dependent upon this parameter.
Alternative formulations of the aerosol flux, based upon combining field observations of the dependence of whitecap coverage upon prevailing wind speed with estimates of aerosol production from laboratory-simulated whitecaps, provide poorer approximations to the aerosol observations, especially at the higher wind speeds when a substantial spume-drop contribution may be expected.