SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Arfken GB, Weber HJ. 2005. Mathematical methods for physicists, 5thedition. Elsevier Academic Press.
  • Batchelor GK. 2000. An introduction to fluid dynamics. Cambridge University Press.
  • Cook KH, Vizy EK. 2006. Coupled model simulations of the West African monsoon system: Twentieth- and twenty-first-century simulations. J. Climate 19: 36813703.
  • Giannini A, Saravanan R, Chang P. 2003. Oceanic forcing of Sahel rainfall on interannual to interdecadal time scales. Science 302: 10271030.
  • Gu G, Adler RF. 2004. Seasonal evolution and variability associated with the West African monsoon system. J. Climate 17: 33643377.
  • Guichard F, Kergoat L, Mougin E, Timouk F, Baup F, Hiernaux P, Lavenu F. 2009. Surface thermodynamics and radiative budget in the Sahelian Gourma: Seasonal and diurnal cycles. J. Hydrol. 375: 161177.
  • Hagos SM, Cook KH. 2007. Dynamics of the West African monsoon jump. J. Climate 20: 52645284.
  • Hagos SM, Cook KH. 2008. Ocean warming and late-twentieth-century Sahel drought and recovery. J. Climate 21: 37973814.
  • Hagos SM, Zhang C, Tao W-K, Lang S, Takayabu YN, Shige S, Katsumata M, Olson B, L'Ecuyer T. 2009. Estimates of tropical diabatic heating profiles: Commonalities and uncertainties. J. Climate, submitted.
  • Hsieh J-S, Cook KH. 2007. A study of the energetics of African easterly waves using a regional climate model. J. Atmos. Sci. 64: 421440.
  • Huffman GJ, Adler RF, Bolvin DT, Gu G, Nelkin EJ, Bowman KP, Hong Y, Stocker EF, Wolff DB. 2007. The TRMM Multisatellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA): Quasi-global, multiyear, combined-sensor precipitation estimates at fine scales. J. Hydrometeorol. 8: 3855.
  • Jackson JD. 1999. Classical electrodynamics, 3rdedition. John Wiley & Sons: New York.
  • Jaluria Y, Torrance KE. 2003. Computational heat transfer, 2ndedition. Taylor & Francis.
  • Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y, Leetmaa A, Reynolds R, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Higgins W, Janowiak J, Mo KC, Ropelewski C, Wang J, Jenne R, Joseph D. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77: 437471.
  • Kanamitsu M, Ebisuzaki W, Woollen J, Yang S-K, Hnilo JJ, Fiorino M, Potter GL. 2002. NCEP–DOE AMIP-II reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 83: 16311643.
  • Lu J, Delworth TL. 2005. Oceanic forcing of the late 20th century Sahel drought. Geophys. Res. Lett. 32: L22706, DOI:10.1029/2005GL023316.
  • Miller RL, Slingo A, Barnard JC, Kassianov E. 2009. Seasonal contrast in the surface energy balance of the Sahel. J. Geophys. Res. 114: D00E05, DOI:10.1029/2008JD010521.
  • Nigam S, Chung C, DeWeaver E. 2000. ENSO diabatic heating in ECMWF and NCEP–NCAR reanalyses, and NCAR CCM3 simulation. J. Climate 13: 31523171.
  • Okumura Y, Xie S-P. 2004. Interaction of the Atlantic equatorial cold tongue and the African monsoon. J. Climate 17: 35893602.
  • Onogi K, Tsutsui J, Koide H, Sakamoto M, Kobayashi S, Hatsushika H, Matsumoto T, Yamazaki N, Kamahori H, Takahashi K, Kadokura S, Wada K, Kato K, Oyama R, Ose T, Mannoji N, Taira R. 2007. The JRA-25 reanalysis. J. Meteorol. Soc. Jpn 85: 369432.
  • Ramel R, Gallée H, Messager C. 2006. On the northward shift of the West African monsoon. Clim. Dyn. 26: 429440.
  • Selvadurai APS. 2000. Partial differential equations in mechanics. Vol 2: The biharmonic equation and Poisson's equation. Springer Verlag.
  • Sultan B, Janicot S. 2003. The West African monsoon dynamics. Part II: The ‘preonset’ and ‘onset’ of the summer monsoon. J. Climate 16: 34073427.
  • Taylor CM. 2008. Intraseasonal land–atmosphere coupling in the West African monsoon. J. Climate 21: 66366648.
  • Timouk F, Kergoat L, Mougin E, Lloyd CR, Ceschia E, Cohard J-M, de Rosnay P, Hiernaux P, Demarez V, Taylor CM. 2009. Response of surface energy balance to water regime and vegetation development in a Sahelian landscape. J. Hydrol. 375: 178189.
  • Uppala SM, Kållberg PW, Simmons AJ, Andrae U, Da Costa Bechtold V, Fiorino M, Gibson JK, Haseler J, Hernandez A, Kelly GA, Li X, Onogi K, Saarinen S, Sokka N, Allan RP, Andersson E, Arpe K, Balmaseda MA, Beljaars ACM, Van De Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Caires S, Chevallier F, Dethof A, Dragosavac M, Fisher M, Fuentes M, Hagemann S, Hólm E, Hoskins BJ, Isaksen L, Janssen PAEM, Jenne R, Mcnally AP, Mahfouf J-F, Morcrette J-J, Rayner NA, Saunders RW, Simon P, Sterl A, Trenberth KE, Untch A, Vasiljevic D, Viterbo P, Woollen J. 2005. The ERA-40 re-analysis. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131: 29613012.
  • Yanai M, Esbensen S, Chu J-H. 1973. Determination of bulk properties of tropical cloud clusters from large-scale heat and moisture budgets. J. Atmos. Sci. 30: 611627.
  • Zhang C, Hagos SM. 2009. Bi-modal structure and variability of large-scale diabatic heating in the Tropics. J. Atmos. Sci., in press.
  • Zhang C, Woodworth P, Gu G. 2006. The seasonal cycle in the lower troposphere over West Africa from sounding observations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 132: 25592582.