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References

  • Best MJ. 2005. Representing urban areas within operational numerical weather prediction models. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 114: 91109.
  • Best MJ. 2006. Progress towards better weather forecasts for city dwellers: from short range to climate change. Theor. Appl. Climatol. 84: 4755.
  • Best MJ, Grimmond CSB, Villani MG. 2006. Evaluation of the urban tile in MOSES using surface energy balance observations. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 118: 503525.
  • Blyth E, Best M, Cox P, Essery R, Boucher O, Harding R, Prentice C, Vidale P, Woodward I. 2006. JULES: A new community land surface model. Global Change Newsletter 66: 111.
  • Bohnenstengel SI, Evans S, Clark PA, Belcher SE. 2010. Simulations of the London urban heat island. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. Submitted.
  • Cox PM, Betts RA, Bunton CB, Essery RLH, Rowntree PR, Smith J. 1999. The impact of the new land surface physics on the GCM simulation of climate and climate sensitivity. Clim. Dyn. 15: 183203.
  • Dupont S, Mestayer PG. 2006. Parameterization of the urban energy budget with the submesoscale soil model. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 49: 17441765.
  • Edwards JM, McGregor JR, Bush MR, Bornemann FJ. 2010. Assessment of numerical weather forecasts against surface observations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. (submitted).
  • Essery R, Best M, Cox P. 2001. ‘MOSES 2.2 Technical Documentation’. Hadley Centre Technical Report No 30. Met Office Hadley Centre: UK.
  • Grimmond CSB, Oke TR. 1999. Aerodynamic properties of urban areas derived from analysis of surface form. J. Appl. Meteorol. 38: 12621292.
  • Grimmond CSB, Blackett M, Best MJ, Baik J-J, Belcher SE, Beringer J, Bohnenstengel SI, Calmet I, Chen F, Coutts A, Dandou A, Fortuniak K, Gouvea ML, Hamdi R, Hendry M, Kanda M, Kawai T, Kawamoto Y, Kondo H, Krayenhoff ES, Lee S-H, Loridan T, Martilli A, Masson V, Miao S, Oleson K, Ooka R, Pigeon G, Porson A, Ryu Y-H, Salamanca F, Steeneveld GJ, Tombrou M, Voogt JA, Young D, Zhang N. 2010a. Initial results from Phase 2 of the international urban energy balance comparison project. Int. J. Climatol. (submitted).
  • Grimmond CSB, Blackett M, Best M, Barlow J, Baik JJ, S Belcher S, Bohnenstengel SI, Calmet I, Chen F, Dandou A, Fortuniak K, Gouvea ML, Hamdi R, Hendry M, Kawai K, Kawamoto Y, Kondo H, Krayenhoff ES, Lee SH, Loridan T, Martilli A, Masson V, Miao S, Oleson K, Pigeon G, Porson A, Ryu YH, Salamanca F, Steeneveld GJ, Tombrou M, Voogt J, Young D, Zhang N. 2010b. The International Urban Energy Balance Models Comparison Project: First results from Phase 1. Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology DOI: 10.1175/2010JAMC2354.1.
  • Harman IN, Best MJ, Belcher SE. 2004a. Radiative exchange in an urban street canyon. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 110: 301316.
  • Harman IN, Barlow JF, Belcher SE. 2004b. Scalar fluxes from urban street canyons. Part II: Model. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 113: 387410.
  • Harman IN, Belcher SE. 2006. The surface energy balance and boundary-layer over urban areas. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 132: 27492768.
  • Heinemann G, Kerschgens . 2006. Simulation of surface energy fluxes using high-resolution non-hydrostatic simulations and comparisons with measurements for the LITFASS-2003 experiments. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 121: 195220.
  • Holt T, Pullen J. 2007. Urban canopy modeling of the New York City Metropolitan area: A comparison and validation of single- and multilayer parameterizations. Mon. Weather Rev. 135: 19071930.
  • Masson V, Grimmond CSB, Oke TR. 2002. Evaluation of the Town Energy Balance (TEB) scheme with direct measurements from dry districts in two cities. J. Appl. Meteorol. 11: 10111026.
  • Oke TR, Spronken-Smith RA, Jauregui E, Grimmond CSB. 1999. The energy balance of central Mexico City during the dry season. Atmos. Environ. 33: 39193930.
  • Porson A, Clark PA, Harman IN, Best MJ, Belcher SE. 2010. Implementation of a new urban energy budget scheme in the MetUM. Part I: Description and idealized simulations. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136: 15141529, DOI: 10.1002/qj.668.
  • Porson A, Harman IN, Belcher SE. 2009. How many facets are needed to represent the surface energy balance of an urban area? Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 132: 107128.