Slab- and height-resolving models of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. Part I: Comparing the simulations
Article first published online: 14 OCT 2010
© 2010 Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society
Volume 136, Issue 652, pages 1686–1699, October 2010 Part A
How to Cite
Kepert, J. D. (2010), Slab- and height-resolving models of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. Part I: Comparing the simulations. Q.J.R. Meteorol. Soc., 136: 1686–1699. doi: 10.1002/qj.667
- Issue published online: 25 OCT 2010
- Article first published online: 14 OCT 2010
- Manuscript Accepted: 2 JUN 2010
- Manuscript Revised: 23 MAY 2010
- Manuscript Received: 1 APR 2009
- 2008. Atypical thermodynamic profiles in hurricanes. Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 631–643.
- 2008. Observed structure, evolution and potential intensity of category five Hurricane Isabel (2003) from 12–14 September. Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 2023–2046. ,
- 1998. Dissipative heating and hurricane intensity. Meteorol. Atmos. Phys. 50: 233–240. ,
- 2002. Low frequency variability of tropical cyclone potential intensity 1. Interannual to interdecadal variability. J. Geophys. Res. 107: DOI:10.1029/2001JD000776. ,
- 1975. A parameterization of the boundary layer of a tropical cyclone. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 8: 3–19. ,
- 2002. A cloud-resolving simulation of Hurricane Bob (1991): Storm structure and eyewall buoyancy. Mon. Weather Rev. 130: 1573–1592.
- 2006. High-resolution simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). Part I: The organization of eyewall vertical motion. J. Atmos. Sci. 63: 19–42. , ,
- 2009. The maximum intensity of tropical cyclones in axisymmetric numerical model simulations. Mon. Weather Rev. 137: 1770–1789. ,
- 2001. Spiral bands in a simulated hurricane. Part I: Vortex Rossby wave verification. J. Atmos. Sci. 58: 2128–2145. ,
- 2007. A Lagrangian trajectory view on transport and mixing processes between the eye, eyewall, and environment using a high-resolution simulation of Hurricane Bonnie (1998). J. Atmos. Sci. 64: 1835–1856. , , ,
- 1972. Numerical investigation of neutral and unstable planetary boundary layers. J. Atmos. Sci. 28: 91–115.
- 2005a. Buoyancy of convective vertical motions in the inner core of intense hurricanes. Part I: General statistics. Mon. Weather Rev. 133: 188–208. , ,
- 2005b. Buoyancy of convective vertical motions in the inner core of intense hurricanes. Part II: Case studies. Mon. Weather Rev. 133: 209–227. , ,
- 1977. The Ekman layer of a circular vortex. A numerical and theoretical study. Geophysica Norvegica 7: 1–16. ,
- 1986. An air-sea interaction theory for tropical cyclones. Part I: Steady-state maintenance. J. Atmos. Sci. 43: 585–604.
- 1988. The maximum intensity of hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci. 45: 1143–1155.
- 1995. Sensitivity of tropical cyclones to surface exchange coefficients and a revised steady-state model incorporating eye dynamics. J. Atmos. Sci. 52: 3969–3976.
- 2005. Why rolls are prevalent in the hurricane boundary layer. J. Atmos Sci. 62: 2647–2661.
- 2009. Boundary layer similarity under an axisymmetric, gradient wind vortex. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 131: 321–344. DOI:10.1007/s10546-009-9379-1.
- 1984. A composite analysis of the core of a mature hurricane. Mon. Weather Rev. 112: 2401–2420.
- 2003. GPS dropwindsonde wind profiles in hurricanes and their operational implications. Weather and Forecasting 18: 32–44. , ,
- 1954. Estimation of friction of surface winds in the August 1949, Florida hurricane. Mon. Weather Rev. 82: 73–79.
- 1985. Vertical motions in intense hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci. 42: 839–856. , ,
- 2001. The dynamics of boundary layer jets within the tropical cyclone core. Part I: Linear theory. J. Atmos. Sci. 58: 2469–2484.
- 2002a. ‘Modelling the tropical cyclone boundary layer wind-field at landfall’. In Modelling and Predicting Extreme Events: Extended abstracts of Presentations at the Fourteenth Annual BMRC Modelling Workshop, 11–13 November, BMRC Research Report No. 90, , (eds). Bureau of Meteorology, pp 81–84.
- 2002b. ‘The impact of landfall on tropical cyclone boundary layer winds’. In Extended abstracts, 25th Conference on Hurricanes and Tropical Meteorology, California, 29 April–3 May. Amer. Meteorol. Soc.: San Diego, CA, pp 335–336.
- 2006a. Observed boundary-layer wind structure and balance in the hurricane core. Part I: Hurricane Georges. J. Atmos. Sci. 63: 2169–2193.
- 2006b. Observed boundary-layer wind structure and balance in the hurricane core. Part II: Hurricane Mitch. J. Atmos. Sci. 63: 2194–2211.
- 2010a. Slab and height-resolving models of the tropical cyclone boundary layer. Part II: Why the simulations differ. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 136: 1700–1711, DOI: 10.1002/qj.685.
- 2010b. ‘Tropical cyclone structure and dynamics’. In Global Perspectives on Tropical Cyclones–From Science to Mitigation, , (eds). World Scientific: Singapore, pp 3–54.
- 2001. The dynamics of boundary layer jets within the tropical cyclone core. Part II: Nonlinear enhancement. J. Atmos. Sci. 58: 2485–2501. ,
- 2009. On the prediction of over-ocean hurricane surface winds and their uncertainty. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 135: 1350–1365. , , , ,
- 1971. Axisymmetric flow in the boundary layer of a maintained vortex. J. Atmos. Sci. 28: 20–41.
- 1982. Vortex boundary layer under quadratic surface stress. Boundary-Layer Meteorol. 22: 151–169.
- 1970. The surface boundary layer of a hurricane–Part II. Tellus 22: 288–297. ,
- 2008. Structure of the eye and eyewall of Hurricane Hugo (1989). Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 1237–1259. , , ,
- 2008. Polarimetric radar observations of the persistently asymmetric structure of Tropical Cyclone Ingrid. Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 616–630. , ,
- 2001. Axisymmetric spindown dynamics of hurricane-like vortices. J. Atmos. Sci. 58: 421–435. , ,
- 2002. An experimental study on hurricane mesovortices. J. Fluid Mech. 471: 1–32. , ,
- 1975. On the estimation of planetary boundary layer variables in mature hurricanes. Mon. Weather Rev. 103: 980–988. ,
- 2005. Instabilities in hurricane-like boundary layers. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 40: 209–236.
- 1980. Evaluation of diagnostic marine boundary-layer models applied to hurricanes. Mon. Weather Rev. 108: 757–765.
- 1990a. Boundary layer structure and dynamics in outer hurricane bands. Part I: Mesoscale rainfall and kinematic structure. Mon. Weather Rev. 118: 891–917.
- 1990b. Boundary layer structure and dynamics in outer hurricane bands. Part II: Downdraft modification and mixed layer recovery. Mon. Weather Rev. 118: 918–938.
- 1990. The relationship of hurricane reconnaissance flight-level wind measurements to winds measured by NOAA's oceanic platforms. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 36: 381–392. ,
- 1996. Hurricane Andrew's landfall in south Florida. Part I: Standardizing measurements for documentation of surface wind fields. Weather and Forecasting 11: 304–328. , ,
- 2005. State of Florida hurricane loss projection model: Atmospheric science component. J. Wind Eng. Ind. Aerodyn. 93: 651–674. , , , , , , ,
- 2009. A high-resolution simulation of asymmetries in severe Southern Hemisphere Tropical Cyclone Larry (2006). Mon. Weather Rev. 137: 4171–4187. DOI:10.1175/2009MWR2744.1. , ,
- 1962. ‘A theoretical analysis of the field of motion in the hurricane boundary layer’, National Hurricane Research Project Report No. 56, U. S. Department of Commerce.
- 1980. Geostrophic adjustment in an axisymmetric vortex. J. Atmos. Sci. 37: 1464–1484. , , ,
- 1999. Polygonal eyewalls, asymmetric eye contraction, and potential vorticity mixing in hurricanes. J. Atmos. Sci. 56: 1197–1223. , , , , , ,
- 2008. The boundary-layer winds in Hurricanes Danielle (1998) and Isabel (2003). Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 3168–3192. ,
- 1983. The asymmetric boundary layer flow under a translating hurricane. J. Atmos. Sci. 40: 1984–1998.
- 1968. The surface boundary layer of a hurricane–Part I. Tellus 20: 473–483.
- 2003. A simple model of the hurricane boundary layer. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 129: 1007–1027.
- 2008. Balanced boundary layers used in hurricane models. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 134: 1385–1395. ,
- 2008. A simple model of the hurricane boundary layer revisited. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 134: 337–351. ,
- 2008. A critique of Emanuel's hurricane model and potential intensity theory. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 134: 551–561. , ,
- 2009. Tropical cyclone spin-up revisited. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 135: 1321–1335. , ,
- 1988. Introduction to Boundary Layer Meteorology. Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht.
- 1996. Practical modeling of hurricane surface winds. J. Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Eng. 122: 195–204. ,
- 1995. Wind field and filling models for hurricane wind-speed predictions. J. Structural Eng. 121: 1700–1709. ,
- 2000. Hurricane wind field model for use in hurricane simulations. J. Engineering Structures 126: 1203–1221. , , ,
- 2009. A hurricane boundary layer and wind field model for use in engineering applications. J. Appl. Meteorol. Clim. 48: 381–405. DOI:10.1175/2008JAMC1841.1. , , ,
- 2009. Limitations of a linear model for the hurricane boundary layer. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 135: 839–850. ,
- 2002. Vortex Rossby waves in a numerically simulated tropical cyclone. Part I: Overall structure, potential vorticity, and kinetic energy budgets. J. Atmos. Sci. 59: 1213–1238.
- 1995. ‘Mature structure and evolution’. In Global Perspectives On Tropical Cyclones, (ed). World Meteorological Organisation, pp 21–62.
- 2007. Modeling the effects of land-sea roughness contrast on tropical cyclone winds. J. Atmos. Sci. 64: 3249–3264. ,