SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Aoshima F, Behrendt A, Bauer H-S, Wulfmeyer V. 2008. Statistics of convection initiation by use of Meteosat rapid scan data during the Convection and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS). Meteorol. Z. 17: 921930.
  • Barthlott C, Schipper J, Kalthoff N, Adler B, Kottmeier C, Blyth AM, Mobbs SD. 2009. Model representation of boundary-layer convergence triggering deep convection over complex terrain: A case study from COPS. 2009. Atmos. Res. 95: 172185. DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.09.010.
  • Barthlott C, Burton R, Kirshbaum D, Hanley K, Richard E, Chaboureau J-P, Trentmann J, Kern B, Bauer H-S, Schwitalla T, Keil C, Seity Y, Gadian A, Blyth A, Mobbs S, Flamant C, Handwerker J. 2011. Initiation of deep convection at marginal instability in anensemble of mesoscale models: a case-study from COPS. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1): 118136, DOI: 10.1002/qj.707.
  • Behrendt A, Pal S, Aoshima F, Bender M, Blyth A, Corsmeier U, Cuesta J, Dick G, Dorninger M, Flamant C, Di Girolamo P, Gorgas T, Huang Y, Kalthoff N, Khodayar S, Mannstein H, Träumner K, Wieser A, Wulfmeyer V. 2011. Observation of convection initiation processes with a suite of state-of-the-art research instruments during COPS IOP 8b. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1): 81100, DOI: 10.1002/qj.710.
  • Bigg E. 1953. The formation of atmospheric ice crystals by the freezing of droplets. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 79: 510519.
  • Blyth AM, Latham J. 1993. Development of ice and precipitation in New Mexican summertime cumulus clouds. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 119: 91120.
  • Blyth AM, Lasher-Trapp SG, Cooper WA. 2005. A study of thermals in cumulus clouds. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131: 11711190.
  • Bower K, Moss S, Johnson D, Choularton T, Latham J, Brown P, Blyth AM, Cardwell J. 1996. A parametrization of the ice water content observed in frontal and convective clouds. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 122: 18151844.
  • Choularton T, Bower K, Weingartner E, Crawford I, Coe H, Gallagher M, Flynn M, Crosier J, Connolly P, Targino A, Alfarra M, Baltensperger U, Sjogren S, Verheggen B, Cozie J, Gysel M. 2008. The influence of small aerosol particles on the properties of water and ice clouds. Faraday Discuss. 137: 205222.
  • Connolly PJ, Flynn MJ, Ulanowski Z, Ibbottson T, Gallagher MW, Choularton TW. 2007. Calibration of the cloud particle imager probes using calibration beads and ice crystal analogs: The depth-of-field. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 24: 18601879.
  • Cotton R, Osborne S, Ulanowski Z, Hirst E, Kaye PH, Greenaway RS. 2010. The ability of the Small Ice Detector (SID-2) to characterize cloud particle and aerosol morphologies obtained during flights of the FAAM BAE-146 research aircraft. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 27: 290303.
  • Cui Z, Carslaw K. 2006. Enhanced vertical transport efficiency of aerosol in convective clouds due to increases in tropospheric aerosol abundance. J. Geophys. Res. 111: D15. DOI: 10.1029/2005JD00678.
  • Cui Z, Carslaw K, Yin Y, Davies S. 2006. A numerical study of aerosol effects on the dynamics and microphysics of a deep convective cloud in a continental environment. J. Geophys. Res. 111: D5. DOI: 10.1029/2005JD00598.
  • Diehl K, Wurzler S. 2004. Heterogeneous drop freezing in the immersion mode: Model calculations considering soluble and insoluble particles in the drops. J. Atmos. Sci. 61: 20632072.
  • Diehl K, Simmel M, Wurzler S. 2006. Numerical sensitivity studies on the impact of aerosol properties and drop freezing modes on the glaciations, microphysics, and dynamics of clouds. J. Geophys. Res. 111: D07202. DOI: 10.1029/2005JD00588.
  • Drewnick F, Hings SS, DeCarlo PF, Jayne JT, Gonin M, Fuhrer K, Weimer S, Jimenez JL, Demerjian KL, Borrmann S, Worsnop DR. 2005. A new Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (ToF-AMS): Instrument description and first field deployment. Aerosol Sci. Tech. 39: 637658.
  • Fiedler F, Bischoff-Gauss I, Kalthoff N, Adrian G. 2000. Modeling of transport and dispersion of SF6 in the Freiburg–Schauinsland area. J. Geophys. Res. 105: D1. 1599–1610.
  • Field PR, Möhler O, Connolly P, Krämer M, Cotton R, Heymsfield AJ, Saathoff H, Schnaiter M. 2006. Some ice nucleation characteristics of Asian and Saharan desert dust. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6: 29913006.
  • Gilmore JS. 2002. Design and performance characteristics of three continuous-flow condensation particle counters: A summary. Atmos. Res. 62: 267294.
  • Golding BW, Clark P, May B. 2005. Boscastle flood: Meteorological analysis of the conditions leading to flooding on 16 August 2004. Weather 60: 230235.
  • Gras J. 1995. CN, CCN and particle size in Southern Ocean air at Cape Grim. Atmos. Res. 35: 233251.
  • Hallett J, Mossop S. 1974. Production of secondary ice crystals during the riming process. Nature 249: 2628.
  • Harris-Hobbs R, Cooper W. 1987. Field evidence supporting quantitative predictions of secondary ice production rate. J. Atmos. Sci. 44: 10711082.
  • Hobbs P, Rangno A. 1985. Ice particle concentrations in clouds. J. Atmos. Sci. 42: 25232549.
  • Hogan R, Field P, Illingworth A, Cotton R, Choularton T. 2002. Properties of embedded convection in warm-frontal mixed-phase cloud from aircraft and polarimetric radar. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 128: 451476.
  • Huang Y, Blyth AM, Brown P, Choularton T, Connolly P, Gadian A, Jones H, Latham J, Cui Z, Carslaw K. 2008. The development of ice in a cumulus cloud over southwest England. New J. Phys. 10: DOI: 10.1088/1367-2630/10/1/10502.
  • Irwin M, Good N, Crosier J, Choularton TW, McFiggans G. 2010. Reconciliation of measurements of hygroscopic growth and critical supersaturation of aerosol particles in southwest Germany. Atmos. Chem. Phys. Discuss. 10: 1707317111.
  • Jensen JB, Granek H. 2002. Optoelectronic simulation of the PMS 260X Optical Array Probe and application to drizzle in a marine stratocumulus, J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 19: 376389.
  • Kalthoff N, Adler B, Barthlott C, Corsmeier U, Mobbs S, Crewell S, Träumner K, Kottmeier C, Wieser A, Smith V, Di Girolamo P. 2009. The impact of convergence zones on the initiation of deep convection: A case study from COPS. Atmos. Res. 93: 680694, DOI: 10.1016/j.atmosres.2009.02.01.
  • Kin Y, Boatman J. 1990. The effects that the optical properties of particles have on atmospheric aerosol measurements with optical particle spectrometers. J. Aerosol Sci. 21: S551S554.
  • Knollenberg RG. 1970. The optical array: An alternative to extinction and scattering for particle size measurement. J. Appl. Meteorol. 9: 86103.
  • Korolev AV. 2007. Reconstruction of the sizes of spherical particles from their shadow images. Part I: Theoretical considerations. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 24: 376389.
  • Kottmeier C, Kalthoff N, Barthlott C, Corsmeier U, Van Baelen J, Behrendt A, Behrendt R, Blyth A, Coulter R, Crewell S, Di Girolamo P, Dorninger M, Flamant C, Foken T, Hagen M, Hauck C, Höller H, Konow H, Kunz M, Mahlke H, Mobbs SD, Richard E, Steinacker R, Weckwerth TM, Wieser A, Wulfmeyer V. 2008. Mechanisms initiating deep convection over complex terrain during COPS. Meteorol. Z. 17: 931948.
  • Lawson PR, Baker BA, Schmitt CG, Jensen TL. 2001. An overview of microphysical properties of Arctic clouds observed in May and July 1998 during FIRE ACE. J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. 106(D14): 1498915014.
  • Lenschow DH, Spyers-Duran P. 1987. Measurement techniques: Air motion sensing. Research Aviation Facility Bulletin 23: NCAR: Boulder.
  • Levin Z, Cotton W. 2009. Aerosol pollution impact on precipitation: A scientific review. Springer Netherlands.
  • Levin Z, Teller A, Ganor E, Yin Y. 2005. On the interactions of mineral dust, sea-salt particles, and clouds: A measurement and modeling study from the Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment campaign. J. Geophys. Res. 110: D20202, DOI: 10.1029/2005JD005810.
  • Mentel TF, Wildt J, Kiendler-Scharr A, Kleist E, Tillmann R, Dal Maso M, Fisseha R, Hohaus T, Spahn H, Uerlings R, Wegener R, Griffiths PT, Dinar E, Rudich Y, Wahner A. 2009. Photochemical production of aerosols from real plant emissions. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9: 43874406.
  • Meyers M, DeMott P, Cotton W. 1992. New primary ice-nucleation parameterizations in an explicit cloud model. J. Appl. Meteorol. 31: 708721.
  • Möhler O, Büttner S, Linke C, Schnaiter M, Saathoff H, Stetzer O, Wagner R, Krämer M, Mangold A, Ebert V, Schurath U. 2005. Effect of sulfuric acid coating on heterogeneous ice nucleation by soot aerosol particles. J. Geophys. Res. 110: D11210.
  • Möhler O, Field P, Connolly P, Saathoff H, Schnaiter M, Wagner R, Cotton R, Krämer M, Mangold A, Heymsfield A. 2006. Efficiency of the deposition mode of ice nucleation on mineral dust particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6: 15391577.
  • Mossop SC. 1978. The influence of drop size distribution on the production of secondary ice particles during graupel growth. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 104: 323330.
  • Mossop SC. 1985. Microphysical properties of supercooled cumulus clouds in which an ice particle multiplication process operated. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 111: 183198.
  • Mossop SC, Hallett J. 1974. Ice crystal concentration in cumulus clouds: Influence of the drop spectrum. Science 186: 632634.
  • Mossop SC, Cottis R, Bartlett B. 1972. Ice crystal concentrations in cumulus and stratocumulus clouds. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 98: 105123.
  • Pratt K, DeMott P, French J, Wang Z, Westphal D, Heymsfield A, Twohy C, Prenni A, Prather K. 2009. In situ detection of biological particles in cloud ice crystals. Nature Geosci. 2: 398401.
  • Reisin T, Levin Z, Tzivion S. 1996. Rain production in convective clouds as simulated in an axisymmetric model with detailed microphysics. Part I: Description of the model. J. Atmos. Sci. 53: 497520.
  • Richard E, Chaboureau J-P, Flamant C, Champollion C, Hagen M, Schmidt K, Kiemle C, Corsmeier U, Barthlott C, Di Girolamo P. 2011. Forecasting summer convection over the Black Forest: a case-study from the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS) experiment. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1): 101117, DOI: 10.1002/qj.710.
  • Rosenfeld D. 2006. Aerosol–cloud interactions control of Earth radiation and latent heat release budgets. Space Sci. Rev. 125: 149157. DOI: 10.1007/s11214-006-9053-6.
  • Saunders C, Hosseini A. 2001. A laboratory study of the effect of velocity on Hallett–Mossop ice crystal multiplication. Atmos. Res. 59: 314.
  • Schroth AC, Chandra MS, Mesichne PF. 1988. A C-Band coherent polarimetric radar for propagation andcloud physics research. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 5: 803822.
  • Soulage F. 1966. Counting and electron microscope study of European ice nuclei. J. Rech. Atmos. 3: 219229.
  • Strapp JW, Leaitch WR, Liu PSK. 1992. Hydrated and dried aerosol-size distribution measurements from the particle measuring systems FSSP-300 probe and the deiced PSASP-100X probe. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 9: 548555.
  • Szyrmer W, Zawadzki I. 1997. Biogenic and anthropogenic sources of ice-forming nuclei: A review. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 78: 209228.
  • Wulfmeyer V, Behrendt A, Bauer H-S, Kottmeier C, Corsmeier U, Blyth A, Craig G, Schumann U, Hagen M, Crewell S, Di Girolamo P, Flamant C, Miller M, Montani A, Mobbs S, Richard E, Rotach MW, Arpagaus M, Russchenberg H, Schlüssel P, König M, Gärtner V, Steinacker R, Dorninger M, Turner DD, Weckwerth T, Hense A, Simmer C. 2008. The Convective and Orographically induced Precipitation Study: A research and development project of the World Weather Research Program for improving quantitative precipitation forecasting in low-mountain regions. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 89: 14771486.
  • Wulfmeyer V, Behrendt A, Kottmeier C, Corsmeier U, Barthlott C, Craig GC, Hagen M, Althausen D, Aoshima F, Arpagaus M, Bauer H-S, Bennett L, Blyth A, Brandau C, Champollion C, Crewell S, Dick G, Di Girolamo P, Dorninger M, Dufournet Y, Eigenmann R, Engelmann R, Flamant C, Foken T, Gorgas T, Grzeschik M, Handwerker J, Hauck C, Höller H, Junkermann W, Kalthoff N, Kiemle C, Klink S, König M, Krauss L, Long CN, Madonna F, Mobbs S, Neininger B, Pal S, Peters G, Pigeon G, Richard E, Rotach MW, Russchenberg H, Schwitalla T, Smith V, Steinacker R, Trentmann J, Turner DD, van Baelen J, Vogt S, Volker H, Weckwerth T, Wernli H, Wieser A, Wirth M. 2011. The Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS): the scientific strategy, the field phase, and research highlights. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137(S1): 330, DOI: 10.1002/qj.752.
  • Yin Y, Levin Z, Reisin T, Tzivion S. 2000. The effects of giant cloud condensation nuclei on the development of precipitationin convective clouds: A numerical study. Atmos. Res. 53: 91116.
  • Yin Y, Carslaw K, Feingold G. 2005. Vertical transport and processing of aerosols in a mixed-phase convective cloud and the feedback on cloud development. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131: 221245.