SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Adam WK, Dier H. 2005. Lange Messreihen zur Wetter- und Klimaforschung am Meteorologischen Observatorium Lindenberg. Promet 31: 159170.
  • Adler RF, Huffman GJ, Chang A, Ferraro R, Xie PP, Janowiak J, Rudolf B, Schneider U, Curtis S, Bolvin D, Gruber A, Susskind J, Arkin P, Nelkin E. 2003. The Version-2 Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) monthly precipitation analysis (1979–present). J. Hydrometeorol. 4: 11471167.
  • Alpert JC. 2004. ‘Sub-grid scale mountain blocking at NCEP’. In Proceedings of 20th Conference on WAF, 16th conference on NWP, Seattle WA, 10–15 January 2004, P2.4. Amer. Meteorol. Soc: Boston.
  • Alexander MA, Blade I, Newman M, Lanzante JR, Lau NC, Scott JD. 2002. The atmospheric bridge: The influence of ENSO teleconnections on air–sea interaction over the global oceans. J. Climate 15: 22052231.
  • Allan R, Ansell T. 2006. A new globally complete monthly historical gridded mean sea level pressure dataset (HadSLP2): 1850–2004. J. Climate 19: 58166842.
  • Anderson JL, Anderson SL. 1999. A Monte Carlo implementation of the nonlinear filtering problem to produce ensemble assimilations and forecasts. Mon. Weather Rev. 127: 27412758.
  • Anderson JL, Collins N. 2007. Scalable implementations of Ensemble Filter algorithms for data assimilation. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 24: 14521463.
  • Anderson JL, Balaji V, Broccoli AJ, Cooke WF, Delworth TL, Dixon KW, Donner LJ, Dunne KA, Freidenreich SM, Garner ST, Gudgel RG, Gordon CT, Held IM, Hemler RS, Horowits LW, Klein SA, Knutson TR, Kushner PJ, Langenhost AR, Lau N-C, Lian Z, Malyshev SL, Milly PCD, Nath MJ, Ploshay JJ, Ramaswamy V, Schwarzkopf MD, Shevliakova E, Sirutis JJ, Soden BJ, Stern WF, Thompson LA, Wilson RJ, Wittenberg AT, Wyman BL. 2004. The new GFDL global atmosphere and land model AM2-LM2: Evaluation with prescribed SST simulations. J. Climate 17: 46414673.
  • Anderson JL, Wyman B, Zhang S, Hoar T. 2005. Assimilation of surface pressure observations using an ensemble filter in an idealized global atmospheric prediction system. J. Atmos. Sci. 62: 29252938.
  • Ansell TJ, Jones PD, Allan RJ, Lister D, Parker DE, Brunet M, Moberg A, Jacobeit J, Brohan P, Rayner NA, Aguilar E, Alexandersson H, Barriendos M, Brandsma T, Cox NJ, Della-Marta PM, Drebs A, Founda D, Gerstengarbe F, Hickey K, Jónsson T, Luterbacher J, Nordli Ø, Oesterle H, Petrakis M, Philipp A, Rodwell MJ, Saladie O, Sigro J, Slonosky V, Srnec L, Swail V, García-Suárez AM, Tuomenvirta H, Wang X, Wanner H, Werner P, Wheeler D, Xoplaki E. 2006. Daily mean sea level pressure reconstructions for the European–North Atlantic region for the period 1850–2003. J. Climate 19: 27172742.
  • Baird ME, Everett JD, Suthers IM. 2010. Analysis of southeast Australian zooplankton observations of 1938–42 using synoptic oceanographic conditions. Deep Sea Res. II, DOI:10.1016/j.dsr2.2010.06.002 (in press).
  • Barsugli JJ, Sardeshmukh PD. 2002. Global atmospheric sensitivity to tropical SST anomalies throughout the Indo–Pacific basin. J. Climate 15: 34273442.
  • Bengtsson L. 1980. On the use of a time sequence of surface pressures in four-dimensional data assimilation. Tellus 32: 189197.
  • Bengtsson L, Shukla J. 1988. Integration of space and in situ observations to study global climate change. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 69: 11301143.
  • Bengtsson L, Kanamitsu M, Kallberg P, Uppala S. 1982. FGGE four-dimensional data assimilation at ECMWF. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 63: 2943.
  • Bengtsson L, Hagemann S, Hodges KI. 2004a. Can climate trends be calculated from reanalysis data? J. Geophys. Res. 109: D11111. DOI: 10.1029/2004JD004536.
  • Bengtsson L, Hodges KI, Hagemann S. 2004b. Sensitivity of the ERA-40 reanalysis to the observing system: Determination of the global atmospheric circulation from reduced observations. Tellus 56A: 456471.
  • Bengtsson L, Arkin P, Berrisford P, Bougeault P, Folland CK, Gordon C, Haines K, Hodges KI, Jones P, Kallberg P, Rayner N, Simmons AJ, Stammer D, Thorne PW, Uppala S, Vose RS. 2007. The need for a dynamical climate reanalysis. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 88: 495501.
  • Benjamin SG, Miller PA. 1990. An alternative sea level pressure reduction and a statistical comparison of geostrophic wind estimates with observed surface winds. Mon. Weather Rev. 118: 20992116.
  • Blackmon ML. 1976. A climatological spectral study of the 500 mb geopotential height of the northern hemisphere. J. Atmos. Sci. 33: 16071623.
  • Bosilovich MG, Chen J, Robertson FR, Adler RF. 2008. Evaluation of global precipitation in reanalyses. J. Appl. Meteorol. Climatol. 47: 22792299.
  • Brandes, Beiträge zur Witterungskunde (1820, Leipzig) referenced in Frängsmyr T, Heilbron JL, Rider RE (eds.) 1990. The Quantifying Spirit in the Eighteenth Century. University of California Press: Berkeley. http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft6d5nb455/.
  • Bromwich DH, Fogt RL. 2004. Strong trends in the skill of the ERA-40 and NCEP-NCAR reanalyses in the high and midlatitudes of the southern hemisphere 1958–2001. J. Climate 23: 46034619.
  • Brönnimann S. 2003. A historical upper-air data set for the 1939–44 period. Int. J. Climatol. 23: 769791.
  • Brönnimann S, Compo GP, Sardeshmukh PD, Jenne R, Sterin A. 2005. New approaches for extending the twentieth century climate record. Eos 86: 26, DOI: 10.1029/2005EO010002.
  • Brönnimann S, Stickler A, Griesser T, Fischer AM, Grant A, Ewen T, Zhou T, Schraner M, Rozanov E, Peter T. 2009. Variability of large-scale atmospheric circulation indices for the northern hemisphere during the past 100 years. Meteorol. Zeit. 18: 379396.
  • Brohan P, Kennedy JJ, Harris I, Tett SFB, Jones PD. 2006. Uncertainty estimates in regional and global observed temperature changes: A new data set from 1850. J. Geophys. Res. 111: D12106, DOI: 10.1029/2005JD00654.
  • Brunet M, Kuglitsch FG. (eds.) 2008. MEDARE: Proceedings of the international workshop on rescue and digitization of climate records in the Mediterranean basin. WMO-TD No. 1432. World Meteorological Organization: Geneva.
  • Burgers G, van Leeuwen PJ, Evensen G. 1998. Analysis scheme in the Ensemble Kalman Filter. Mon. Weather Rev. 126: 17191724.
  • Burkhardt U, James IN. 2006. The effect of Doppler correction on measures of storm track intensity. Clim. Dyn. 27: 515530. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-006-0146-4.
  • Chang EKM. 2005. Effects of secular changes in frequency of observations and observational errors on monthly mean MSLP summary statistics derived from ICOADS. J. Climate 18: 36233633.
  • Chang EKM. 2007. Assessing the increasing trend in northern hemisphere winter storm track activity using surface ship observations and a statistical storm track model. J. Climate 20: 56075628.
  • Chang EKM. 2009. Are band-pass variance statistics useful measures of storm track activity? Re-examing storm track variability associated with the NAO using multiple storm track measures. Clim. Dyn. 33: 277296, DOI: 10.1007/s00382-009-0532-9.
  • Climate Change Science Program. 2003. Strategic Plan for the US Climate Change Science Program. US Climate Change Science Program: Washington DC. Available from http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/stratplan2003/final/ccspstratplan2003-all.pdf.
  • Climate Change Science Program. 2008a. Revised Research Plan for the US Climate Change Science Program. US Climate Change Science Program: Washington DC. Available from http://www.climatescience.gov/Library/stratplan2008/.
  • Climate Change Science Program. 2008b. Reanalysis of Historical Climate Data for Key Atmospheric Features: Implications for Attribution of Causes of Observed Change. A Report by the US Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research. Dole R, Hoerling M, Schubert S (eds.). NOAA, National Climatic Data Center: Asheville, NC, USA, 156pp.
  • Compo GP, Sardeshmukh PD. 2004. Storm track predictability on seasonal and decadal scales. J. Climate 17: 37013720.
  • Compo GP, Sardeshmukh PD, Penland C. 2001. Changes of subseasonal variability associated with El Niño. J. Climate. 14: 33563374.
  • Compo GP, Whitaker JS, Sardeshmukh PD. 2006. Feasibility of a 100-year reanalysis using only surface pressure data. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 87: 175190.
  • Compo GP, Whitaker JS, Sardeshmukh PD. 2008. ‘The 20th Century Reanalysis Project.’ In Proceedings of the Third WCRP International Conference on Reanalysis, The University of Tokyo, Japan. 28 Jan1 Feb 2008. Available at http://wcrp.ipsl.jussieu.fr/Workshops/Reanalysis2008/Documents/V5-511_ea.pdf.
  • Cook BI, Seager R, Miller RL. 2010. Atmospheric circulation anomalies during two persistent North American droughts: 1932–1939 and 1948–1957. Clim. Dyn. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-010-0807-1 (in press).
  • Daley R. 1991. Atmospheric Data Analysis. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK.
  • Dee DP, Uppala S. 2009. Variational bias correction of satellite radiance data in the ERA-Interim reanalysis. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 135: 18301841.
  • Dee DP, Rukhovets L, Todling R, da Silva AM, Larson JW. 2001. An adaptive buddy check for observational quality control. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 127: 24512471.
  • Diamond H, Hinman WS, Lapham EG. 1938. Comparison of soundings with radio-meteorographs, aerographs and meteorographs. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 19: 129141.
  • Dubois JL, Multhauf RP, Ziegler CA. 2002. The invention and development of the radiosonde, with a catalog of upper-atmospheric telemetering probes in the National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution. Smithsonian Institution Press: Washington DC. http://hdl.handle.net/10088/2453.
  • Dupigny-Giroux LA, Ross TF, Elms JD, Truesdell R, Doty SR. 2007. NOAA's climate database modernization program: Rescuing, archiving, and digitizing history. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 88: 10151017.
  • Durre I, Vose RS, Wuertz DB. 2006. Overview of the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive. J. Climate 19: 5368.
  • Easterling DR, Anderson DM, Cohen SJ, Gutowski WJ, Holland GJ, Kunkel KE, Peterson TC, Pulwarty RS, Stouffer RJ, Wehner MF. 2008. Measures to improve our understanding of weather and climate extremes. In Weather and Climate Extremes in a Changing Climate. Regions of Focus: North America, Hawaii, Caribbean, and US Pacific Islands. Karl TR, Meehl GA, Miller CD, Hassol SJ, Waple AM, Murray WL. (eds.) A report by the US Climate Change Science Program and the Subcommittee on Global Change Research, Washington DC. Available from http://downloads.climatescience.gov/sap/sap3-3/sap3-3-final-Chapter4.pdf.
  • Ek MB, Mitchell KE, Lin Y, Rogers E, Grunmann P, Koren V, Gayno G, Tarpley JD. 2003. Implementation of the Noah land-use model advances in the NCEP operational mesoscale Eta model. J. Geophys. Res. 108: 8851, DOI: 10.1029/2002JD003296.
  • Emanuel K. 2010. Tropical cyclone activity downscaled from NOAA-CIRES reanalysis, 1908–1958. J. Adv. Model. Earth Syst. 2: Art. 1, DOI: 10.3894/JAMES.2010.2.1.
  • Evensen G. 1994. Sequential data assimilation with a nonlinear quasi-geostrophic model using Monte Carlo methods to forecast error statistics. J. Geophys. Res. 99: 1014310162.
  • Evensen G. 2003. The Ensemble Kalman Filter: theoretical formulation and practical implementation. Ocean Dyn. 53: 343367.
  • Evensen G. 2009. Data Assimilation: The Ensemble Kalman Filter. Springer: Berlin.
  • Fischer AM, Schraner M, Rozanov E, Kenzelmann P, Schnadt Poberaj C, Brunner D, Lustenberger A, Luo BP, Bodeker GE, Egorova T, Schmutz W, Peter T, Brönnimann S. 2008. Interannual-to-decadal variability of the stratosphere during the 20th century: Ensemble simulations with a chemistry-climate model. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8: 77557777.
  • García-Herrera R, Können GP, Wheeler DA, Prieto MR, Jones PD, Koek FB. 2005. CLIWOC: A Climatological Database for the World's Oceans 1750–1854. Climatic Change 73: 112.
  • Gaspari G, Cohn SE. 1999. Construction of correlation functions in two and three dimensions. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 125: 723757. DOI: 10.1002/qj. 49712555417.
  • Gates WL, Boyle JS, Covey C, Dease CG, Doutriaux CM, Drach RS, Fiorino M, Gleckler PJ, Hnilo JJ, Marlais SM, Phillips TJ, Potter GL, Santer BD, Sperber KR, Taylor KE, Williams DN. 1999. An overview of the results of the Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP I). Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 80: 2955.
  • GCOS. 2010. Implementation plan for the global observing system for climate in support of the UNFCCC (2010 Update). WMO-IOC-UNEP-ICS, GOOS-184, GTOS-76, GCOS-138, WMO TD-1523. World Meteorological Organization: Geneva, Switzerland. Available at http://www.wmo.int/pages/prog/gcos/Publications/gcos-138.pdf.
  • Gibson JK, Kallberg P, Uppala S, Hernandey A, Nomura A, Serano E. 1997. ‘ERA description’. Reanalysis Project Report Series 1, ECMWF: Reading, UK.
  • Giese BS, Compo GP, Slowey NC, Sardeshmukh PD, Carton JA, Ray S, Whitaker JS. 2010. The 1918/1919 El Niño. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 91: 177183, DOI: 10.1175/2009BAMS2903.1.
  • Griesser T, Brönnimann S, Grant A, Ewen T, Stickler A, Comeaux J. 2010. Reconstruction of global monthly upper-level temperature and geopotential height fields back to 1880. J. Climate 23: 55905609. DOI: 10.1175/2010JCLI3056.1.
  • Group on Earth Observations. 2005. The Global Earth Observation System of Systems 10-year Implementation Plan. Available at http://earthobservations.org/documents/10-Year Implementation Plan.pdf.
  • Haimberger L. 2007. Homogenization of radiosonde temperature time series using innovation statistics. J. Climate 20: 13771403.
  • Hamill TM. 2006. Ensemble-based data assimilation. In Predictability of Weather and Climate. Palmer TN, Hagedorn R (eds.) Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK. 124156.
  • Hamill TM, Whitaker JS, Snyder C. 2001. Distance-dependent filtering of background error covariance estimates in an ensemble Kalman filter. Mon. Weather Rev. 129: 27762790.
  • Hansen JE, Ruedy R, Sato M, Imhoff M, Lawrence W, Easterling D, Peterson T, Karl T. 2001. A closer look at United States and global surface temperature change. J. Geophys. Res. 106: 2394723963.
  • Harnik N, Chang EKM. 2003. Storm track variations as seen in radiosonde observations and reanalysis data. J. Climate 16: 480495.
  • Held IM, Soden BJ. 2006. Robust response of the hydrological cycle to global warming. J. Climate 19: 56865699.
  • Hodges KI, Hoskins BJ, Boyle J, Thorncroft C. 2003. A comparison of recent reanalysis datasets using objective feature tracking: Storm tracks and tropical easterly waves. Mon. Weather Rev. 131: 20122037.
  • Hong S-Y, Pan H-L. 1996. Nonlocal boundary layer vertical diffusion in a medium-range forecast model. Mon. Weather Rev. 124: 23222339.
  • Hou Y, Moorthi S, Compana K. 2002. ‘Parameterization of solar radiation transfer in NCEP models’. Office Note 441. NCEP: Washington DC. Available from http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/officenotes/FullTOC.html#2000.
  • Houtekamer PL, Mitchell HL. 1998. Data assimilation using an Ensemble Kalman Filter technique. Mon. Weather Rev. 126: 796811.
  • Houtekamer PL, Mitchell HL. 2001. A sequential Ensemble Kalman Filter for atmospheric data assimilation. Mon. Weather Rev. 129: 123137.
  • Houtekamer PL, Mitchell HL. 2005. Ensemble Kalman filtering. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131: 32693289. DOI: 10.1256/qj.05.135.
  • Houtekamer PL, Mitchell HL, Pellerin G, Buehner M, Charron M, Spacek L, Hansen B. 2005. Atmospheric data assimilation with an Ensemble Kalman Filter: Results with real observations. Mon. Weather Rev. 133: 604620.
  • Houtekamer PL, Mitchell HL, Deng X. 2009. Model error representation in an operational Ensemble Kalman Filter. Mon. Weather Rev. 137: 21262143.
  • Hurrell JW, Hack JJ, Phillips AS, Caron J, Yin J. 2006. The dynamical simulation of the Community Atmosphere Model version 3 (CAM3). J. Climate 19: 21622183.
  • Ide K, Courtier P, Ghil M, Lorenc AC. 1997. Unified notation for data assimilation: Operational, sequential, and variational. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 75: 181189.
  • Ingleby NB. 1995. Assimilation of station level pressure and errors in station height. Weather Forecasting 10: 172182.
  • Jones P. 2001. Early European Instrumental Records. In History and Climate: Memories of the Future. Jones P, Ogilvie AEJ, Davies TD, Briffa KR. (eds.) Kluwer Academic: New York, NY.
  • Juang H-M. 2005. ‘Discrete generalized hybrid vertical coordinates by a mass, energy and angular momentum conserving vertical finite-differencing scheme’. Office Note 445. NCEP: Washington DC. Available from http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/officenotes/FullTOC.html#2000.
  • Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Higgins W, Janowiak J, Mo KC, Ropelewski C, Wang J, Leetmaa A, Reynolds R, Jenne R, Joseph D. 1996. The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 77: 437471.
  • Kanamitsu M, Alpert JC, Campana KA, Caplan PM, Deaven DG, Iredell M, Katz B, Pan H-L, Sela J, White GH. 1991. Recent changes implemented into the Global Forecast System at NMC. Weather Forecasting 6: 425435.
  • Kanamitsu M, Hwang S-O. 2006. The role of sea surface temperature in reanalysis. Mon. Weather Rev. 134: 532552.
  • Kanamitsu M, Ebisuzaki W, Woollen J, Yang SK, Hnilo JJ, Fiorino M, Potter GL. 2002. The NCEP-DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 83: 16311643.
  • Kent EC, Berry DI. 2005. Quantifying random measurement errors in Voluntary Observing Ships' meteorological observations. Int. J. Climatol. 25: 843856.
  • Kent EC, Woodruff SD, Berry DI. 2007. Metadata from WMO Publication No. 47 and an assessment of Voluntary Observing Ship observation heights in ICOADS. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. 24: 214234.
  • Khare SP, Anderson JL, Hoar TJ, Nychka D. 2008. An investigation into the application of an ensemble Kalman smoother to high-dimensional geophysical systems. Tellus 60A: 97112.
  • Kim Y-J, Arakawa A. 1995. Improvement of orographic gravity wave parameterization using a mesoscale gravity wave model. J. Atmos. Sci. 52: 18751902.
  • Kinter JL, Fennessy MJ, Krishnamurthy V, Marx L. 2004. An evaluation of the apparent interdecadal shift in the tropical divergent circulation in the NCEP-NCAR reanalysis. J. Climate 17: 349361.
  • Kistler R, Kalnay E, Collins W, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Kanamitsu M, Kousky V, van den Dool H, Jenne R, Fiorino M. 2001. The NCEP–NCAR 50-year reanalysis: Monthly means CD-ROM and documentation. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 82: 247267.
  • Knapp KR, Kruk MC, Levinson DH, Diamond HJ, Neumann CJ. 2010. The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS): Unifying tropical cyclone best track data. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 91: 363376. DOI: 10.1175/2009BAMS2755.1.
  • Kocin P, Uccellini L. 2004. Northeast Snowstorms. American Meteorological Society. Meteorol. Monogr. 32: 2 volumes.
  • Li H, Kalnay E, Miyoshi T. 2009. Simultaneous estimation of covariance inflation and observation errors within an ensemble Kalman filter. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 135: 523533.
  • Lorenc AC. 1986. Analysis methods for numerical weather prediction. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 112: 11771194.
  • Lott F, Miller MJ. 1997. A new subgrid-scale orographic drag parameterization: Its formulation and testing. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 123: 101127.
  • Lott N, Vose R, Del Greco SA, Ross TF, Worley S, Comeaux J. 2008. ‘The Integrated Surface Database: Partnerships and progress.’ In Proceedings of 88th AMS Annual Meeting, 20–25 January 2008, New Orleans, Louisiana, combined preprints (CD-ROM), Amer. Meteorol. Soc: Boston, MA. Available from http://www1.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/ish/ams-isd-jan08.pdf.
  • Manabe T. 1999. The digitized Kobe collection, Phase I: Historical surface marine meteorological observations in the archive of the Japan Meteorological Agency. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 80: 27032715.
  • Mitchell HL, Houtekamer PL, Pellerin G. 2002. Ensemble size, balance, and model-error representation in an Ensemble Kalman Filter. Mon. Weather Rev. 130: 27912808.
  • Mlawer EJ, Taubman SJ, Brown PD, Iacono MJ, Clough SA. 1997. Radiative transfer for inhomogeneous atmospheres: RRTM, a validated correlated-k model for the longwave. J. Geophys. Res. 102D14 1666316682.
  • Monmonier M. 1999. Air Apparent: How Meteorologists Learned to Map, Predict, and Dramatize Weather. University of Chicago Press: Chicago.
  • Moorthi S, Pan H-L, Caplan P. 2001. ‘Changes to the 2001 NCEP operational MRF/AVN global analysis/forecast system’. Technical Procedures Bulletin 484, NOAA, NWS: Silver Spring, MD. Available from http://www.nws.noaa.gov/om/tpb/484.htm.
  • National Antarctic Expedition. 1913. Meteorology Part II: Comprising daily synchronous charts 1 October 1901 to 31 March 1904. Hepworth MWC (ed.) R. Soc. London.
  • National Centers for Environmental Prediction. 2010. ‘Model performance statistics’. NOAA, NCEP: Washington DC. http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/gmb/STATS/STATS.html.
  • Newman M, Sardeshmukh PD, Bergman JW. 2000. An assessment of the NCEP, NASA and ECMWF reanalyses over the tropical West Pacific warm pool. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 81: 4148.
  • Onogi K, Tsutsui J, Koide H, Sakamoto M, Kobayashi S, Hatsushika H, Matsumoto T, Yamazaki N, Kamahori H, Takahashi K, Kadokura S, Wada K, Kato K, Oyama R, Ose T, Mannoji N, Taira R. 2007. The JRA-25 Reanalysis. J. Meteorol. Soc. Japan 85: 369432.
  • Oort AH, Yienger JJ. 1996. Observed interannual variability in the Hadley Circulation and its connection to ENSO. J. Climate 9: 27512767.
  • Ploshay JJ, White R, Miyakoda K. 1983. ‘FGGE level III-b daily global analyses, Part I’. NOAA Data Report ERL GFDL-1.
  • Przybylak R. 2009. The Climate of Poland in recent centuries: A synthesis of current knowledge: Instrumental observations. In The Polish Climate in the European Context: An Historical Overview. Przybylak R, Majorowicz J, Brázdil R, Kejna M (eds.) Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, NY.
  • Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB, Folland CK, Alexander LV, Rowell DP, Kent EC, Kaplan A. 2003. Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J. Geophys. Res. 108D14 4407, DOI: 10.1029/2002JD002670.
  • Rienecker MM, Suarez MJ, Todling R, Bacmeister J, Takacs L, Liu H-C, Gu W, Sienkiewicz M, Koster RK, Gelaro R, Stajner I, Nielsen JE. 2008. The GEOS-5 data assimilation systemDocumentation ofversions 5.0.1 and 5.1.0, and 5.2.0. NASA Technical Report Series on Global Modeling and Assimilation, NASA/T-2008-104606, 27. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center: Greenbelt, MA.
  • Roeckner E, Arpe K, Bengtsson L, Christoph M, Claussen M, Dümenil L, Esch M, Giorgetta M, Schlese U, Schulzweida U. 1996. ‘The atmospheric general circulation model ECHAM4: Model description and simulation of present-day climate’. Report 218, Max-Planck Institut für Meteorologie: Hamburg, Germany.
  • Saha S, Nadiga S, Thiaw C, Wang J, Wang W, Zhang Q, van den Dool HM, Pan H-L, Moorthi S, Behringer D, Stokes D, Peña M, Lord S, White G, Ebisuzaki W, Peng P, Xie P. 2006. The NCEP Climate Forecast System. J. Climate 19: 34833517.
  • Saha S, Moorthi S, Pan H-L, Wu X, Wang J, Nadiga S, Tripp P, Kistler R, Woollen J, Behringer D, Liu H, Stokes D, Grumbine R, Gayno G, Wang J, Hou Y-T, Chuang H-Y, Juang H-MH, Sela J, Iredell M, Treadon R, Kleist D, Van Delst P, Keyser D, Derber J, Ek M, Meng J, Wei H, Yang R, Lord S, van den Dool H, Kumar A, Wang W, Long C, Chelliah M, Xue Y, Huang B, Schemm J-K, Ebisuzaki W, Lin R, Xie P, Chen M, Zhou S, Higgins W, Zou C-Z, Liu Q, Chen Y, Han Y, Cucurull L, Reynolds RW, Rutledge G, Goldberg M. 2010. The NCEP Climate Forecast System reanalysis. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 91: 10151057. DOI: 10.1175/2010BAMS3001.1.
  • Sakov P, Evensen G, Bertino L. 2010. Asynchronous data assimilation with the EnKF. Tellus 62A: 2429, DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0870.2009.00417.x.
  • Sardeshmukh PD. 1993. The baroclinic χ problem and its application to the diagnosis of atmospheric heating rates. J. Atmos. Sci. 50: 10991112.
  • Scaife AA, Kucharski F, Folland CK, Kinter J, Brönnimann S, Fereday D, Fischer AM, Grainger S, Jin EK, Kang IS, Knight JR, Kusunoki S, Lau NC, Nath MJ, Nakaegawa T, Pegion P, Schubert S, Sporyshev P, Syktus J, Yoon JH, Zeng N, Zhou T. 2009. The CLIVAR C20C project: Selected twentieth century climate events. Clim. Dyn. 33: 603614. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-008-0451-1.
  • Schraner M, Rozanov E, Schnadt Poberaj C, Kenzelmann P, Fischer AM, Zubov V, Luo BP, Hoyle CR, Egorova T, Fueglistaler S, Brönnimann S, Schmutz W, Peter T. 2008. Technical Note: Chemistry-climate model SOCOL: version 2.0 with improved transport and chemistry/microphysics schemes. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8: 59575974.
  • Schubert SD, Rood RB, Pfaendtner J. 1993. An assimilated dataset for Earth-science applications. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 74: 23312342.
  • Simmons A, Uppala S, Dee D, Kobayashi S. 2007. ‘ERA-Interim: New ECMWF reanalysis products from 1989 onwards’. Newsletter 110, ECMWF: Reading, UK.
  • Slonosky VC, Graham E. 2005. Canadian pressure observations and circulation variability: Links to air temperature. Int. J. Climatol. 25: 14731492. DOI: 10.1002/joc.1191.
  • Smith TM, Reynolds RW, Peterson TC, Lawrimore J. 2008. Improvements to NOAA's historical merged land-ocean surface temperature analysis (1880–2006). J. Climate 21: 22832296.
  • Stickler A, Grant AN, Ewen T, Ross TF, Vose RS, Comeaux J, Bessemoulin P, Jylhä K, Adam WK, Jeannet P, Nagurny A, Sterin AM, Allan R, Compo GP, Griesser T, Brönniman S. 2010. The Comprehensive Historical Upper Air Network (CHUAN). Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 91: 741751. DOI: 10.1175/2009BAMS2852.1.
  • Sturaro G. 2003. A closer look at the climatological discontinuities present in the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis temperature due to the introduction of satellite data. Clim. Dyn. 21: 309316. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-003-0334-4.
  • Taylor KE, Williamson D, Zwiers F. 2000. ‘The sea surface temperature and sea-ice concentration boundary conditions of AMIP II simulations’. Report 60, Program for Climate Model Diagnosis and Intercomparison. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory: Livermore, California. Available from http://www-pcmdi.llnl.gov/projects/amip/AMIP2EXPDSN/BCS/amip2bcs.php.
  • Thépaut J-N. 2006. ‘Assimilating only surface-pressure observations in 3- and 4D-Var’. In Proceedings of ECMWF/GEO Workshop on Atmospheric Re-analysis, Reading, UK. 19–22 June 2006. Available from http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/library/ecpublications/_pdf/workshop/2006/Reanalysis/Thepaut.pdf.
  • Thorne PW, Vose RS. 2010. Reanalyses suitable for characterizing long-term trends. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 91: 353361. DOI: 10.1175/2009BAMS2858.1.
  • Tippett MK, Anderson JL, Bishop CH, Hamill TM, Whitaker JS. 2003. Ensemble square root filters. Mon. Weather Rev. 131: 14851490.
  • Trenberth KE, Olson JG. 1988. An evaluation and intercomparison of global analyses from the National Meteorological Center and the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 69: 10471057.
  • Trenberth KE, Smith L. 2005. The mass of the atmosphere: A constraint on global analyses. J. Climate 18: 864875.
  • Trenberth KE, Koike T, Onogi K. 2008. Progress and prospects for reanalysis for weather and climate. Eos 89: 234235.
  • Uppala SM, Kållberg PW, Simmons AJ, Andrae U, da Costa Bechtold V, Fiorino M, Gibson JK, Haseler J, Hernandez A, Kelly GA, Li X, Onogi K, Saarinen S, Sokka N, Allan RP, Andersson E, Arpe K, Balmaseda MA, Beljaars ACM, Van De Berg L, Bidlot J, Bormann N, Caires S, Chevallier F, Dethof A, Dragosavac M, Fisher M, Fuentes M, Hagemann S, Hólm E, Hoskins BJ, Isaksen L, Janssen PAEM, Jenne R, McNally AP, Mahfouf J-F, Morcrette J-J, Rayner NA, Saunders RW, Simon P, Sterl A, Trenberth KE, Untch A, Vasiljevic D, Viterbo P, Woollen J. 2005. The ERA-40 re-analysis. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 131: 29613012 DOI: 10.1256/qj.04.176.
  • Wallace JM, Gutzler DS. 1981. Teleconnections in the geopotential height field during the northern hemisphere winter. Mon. Weather Rev. 109: 784812.
  • Wexler H, Tepper M. 1947. Results of the Wartime Historical and Normal Map Program. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. 28: 175178.
  • Whitaker JS, Hamill TM. 2002. Ensemble data assimilation without perturbed observations. Mon. Weather Rev. 130: 19131924.
  • Whitaker JS, Compo GP, Wei X, Hamill TM. 2004. Reanalysis without radiosondes using ensemble data assimilation. Mon. Weather Rev. 132: 11901200.
  • Whitaker JS, Hamill TM, Wei X, Song Y, Toth Z. 2008. Ensemble data assimilation with the NCEP Global Forecast System. Mon. Weather Rev. 136: 463482.
  • Whitaker JS, Compo GP, Thépaut J-N. 2009. A comparison of variational and ensemble-based data assimilation systems for reanalysis of sparse observations. Mon. Weather Rev. 137: 19911999.
  • Wilkinson C, Woodruff SD, Brohan P, Claesson S, Freeman E, Koek F, Lubker SJ, Marzin C, Wheeler D. 2010. Recovery of Logbooks And International Marine Data: The RECLAIM project. Int. J. Climatol. DOI: 10.1002/joc.2102 (in press).
  • Wood KR, Overland JE. 2010. Early twentieth century Arctic warming in retrospect. Int. J. Climatol. 30: 12691279. DOI: 10.1002/joc.1973.
  • Woodruff SD, Diaz HF, Worley SJ, Reynolds RW, Lubker SJ. 2005. Early ship observational data and ICOADS. Climatic Change 73: 169194.
  • Woodruff SD, Worley SJ, Lubker SJ, Ji Z, Freeman JE, Berry DI, Brohan P, Kent EC, Reynolds RW, Smith SR, Wilkinson C. 2010. ICOADS release 2.5: Extensions and enhancements to the surface marine meteorological archive. Int. J. Climatol. DOI: 10.1002/joc.2103 (in press).
  • Worley SJ, Woodruff SD, Reynolds RW, Lubker SJ, Lott N. 2005. ICOADS release 2.1 data and products. Int. J. Climatol. 25: 823842. DOI: 10.1002/joc.1166.
  • Yin X, Gleason BE, Compo GP, Matsui N, Vose RS. 2008. ‘The International Surface Pressure Databank (ISPD) land component version 2.2’. National Climatic Data Center: Asheville, NC. Available from ftp://ftp.ncdc.noaa.gov/pub/data/ispd/doc/ISPD2_2.pdf.