SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

References

  • Anderson TL, Ogren JA. 1998. Determining aerosols radiative properties using the tsi 3563 integrating nepehlometer. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 29: 5769.
  • Andreae MO, Berresheim H, Andreae TW, Kritz MA, Bates TS, Merrill JT. 1988. Vertical distribution of dimethylsulfide, sulfur dioxide, aerosol ions, and radon over the northeast Pacific Ocean. J. Atmos. Chem. 6: 149173.
  • Balkanski Y, Schulz M, Claquin T, Guibert S. 2007. Reevaluation of mineral aerosol radiative forcings suggests a better agreement with satellite and aeronet data. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7: 8195.
  • Barthelmy D. 2007. Mineralogy database. http://www.webmineral.com.
  • Bedidi A, Cervelle B. 1993. Light scattering by spherical particles with hematite and goethite like optical properties: effect of water impregnation. J. Geophys. Res. 98: 1194111952.
  • Bohren CF, Huffman DR. 1983. Absorption and Scattering of Light by Small Particles. Wiley: New York.
  • Bond TC, Anderson TL, Campbell D. 1999. Calibration and intercomparison of filter-based measurements of visible light absorption by aerosols. Aerosol Sci. Technol. 30: 582600.
  • Calzolai G, Chiari M, García Orellana I, Lucarelli F, Migliori A, Nava S, Taccetti F. 2006. The new external beam facility for environmental studies at the Tandetron accelerator of LABEC. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 249: 928931.
  • Calzolai G, Chiari M, Lucarelli F, Nava S, Portarena S. 2010. Proton induced γ-ray emission yields for the analysis of light elements in aerosol samples in an external beam set-up. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B. 268: 15401545.
  • Caquineau S. 1997. Les sources des aerosols sahariens transportésau dessus de l'Atlantique tropical Nord: Localisation et caractéristiquesminéralogiques. PhD thesis, University of Paris 12, Val-de-Marne, France.
  • Caquineau S, Magonthier MC, Gaudichet A, Gomes L. 1997. An improved procedure for the X-ray diffraction analysis of low-mass atmospheric dust samples. Eur. J. Mineral. 9: 157166.
  • Caquineau S, Gaudichet A, Gomes L, Legrand M. 2002. Mineralogy of Saharan dust transported over northwestern tropical Atlantic Ocean in relation to source regions. J. Geophys. Res. 107: 4251, DOI: 10.1029/2000JD000247.
  • Chiari M, Lucarelli F, Mazzei F, Nava S, Paperetti L, Prati P, Valli G, Vecchi R. 2005. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in an industrial district near Florence by PIXE and PESA. X-Ray Spectrom. 34: 323329.
  • Chou C, Formenti P, Maille M, Ausset P, Helas G, Harrison M, Osborne S. 2008. Size distribution, shape, and composition of mineral dust aerosols collected during the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis Special Observation Period 0: Dust and Biomass Burning Experiment field campaign in Niger, January 2006. J. Geophys. Res. 113: D00C10, DOI: 10.1029/2008JD009897.
  • Claquin T, Schulz M, Balkanski YJ. 1999. Modeling the mineralogy of atmospheric dust sources. J. Geophys. Res. 104: 2224322256.
  • Cullen MJP. 1993. The unified forecast/climate model. Meteorol. Mag. 122: 8193.
  • Deer WA, Howie RA, Zussman J. 1966. An Introduction to the Rock-Forming Minerals. Wiley: New York, NY.
  • Dubovik O, Sinyuk A, Lapyonok T, Holben BN, Mishchenko M, Yang P, Eck TF, Volten H, Munõz O, Veihelmann B, Van Der Zande WJ, Leon JF, Sorokin M, Slutsker I. 2006. Application of spheroid models to account for aerosol particle nonsphericity in remote sensing of desert dust. J. Geophys. Res. 111: D11208, DOI: 10.1029/2005jd006619.
  • Egan WG, Hilgeman TW. 1979. Optical Properties of Inhomogeneous Materials: Applications to Geology. Academic Press: New York, NY.
  • Faye GH. 1968. The optical spectra of six coordinate sites in chlorite, biotite, phlogopite and vivianite: some aspects of pleochroism in the sheet silicates. Can. Mineral. 9: 403425.
  • Formenti P, Rajot JL, Desboeufs K, Caquineau S, Chevaillier S, Nava S, Gaudichet A, Journet E, Triquet S, Alfaro S, Chiari M, Haywood JM, Coe H, Highwood E. 2008. Regional variability of the composition of mineral dust from western Africa: results from the AMMA SOP0/DABEX and DODO field campaigns. J. Geophys. Res. 113: D00C13, DOI: 10.1029/2008JD009903.
  • Formenti P, Nava S, Prati P, Chevaillier S, Klaver A, Lafon S, Mazzei F, Calzolai G, Chiari M. 2010. Self-attenuation artefacts and correction factors of light element measurements by X-ray analysis: implication for mineral dust composition studies, J. Geophys. Res. 115: D01203, DOI: 10.1029/2009jd012701.
  • Formenti P, Rajot JL, Desboeufs K, Saïd F, Grand N, Chevaillier S, Schmechtig C. 2011. Airborne observations of mineral dust over Western Africa in the summer monsoon season: spatial and vertical variability of physico-chemical and optical properties, Atmos. Chem. Phys. 11: 63876410, DOI: 10.5194/acp-11-6387-2011.
  • Forster P, Ramaswamy V, Artaxo P, Berntsen T, Betts R, Fahey DW, Haywood J, Lean J, Lowe DC, Myhre G, Nganga J, Prinn R, Raga G, Schulz M, Van Dorland R, Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL. 2007. Changes in atmospheric constituents and in radiative forcing. In Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the IPCC, Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, UK; 129234.
  • Haywood J, Francis P, Osborne S, Glew M, Loeb N, Highwood E, Tanré D, Myhre G, Formenti P, Hirst E. 2003. Radiative properties and direct radiative effect of Saharan dust measured by the C-130 aircraft during SHADE. 1. Solar spectrum. J. Geophys. Res. 108(D18): 8577, DOI: 10.1029/2002JD002687.
  • Haywood JM, Pelon J, Formenti P, Bharmal N, Brooks M, Capes G, Chazette P, Chou C, Christopher S, Coe H, Cuesta J, Derimian Y, Desboeufs K, Greed G, Harrison M, Heese B, Highwood EJ, Johnson B, Mallet M, Marticorena B, Marsham J, Milton S, Myhre G, Osborne SR, Parker DJ, Rajot JL, Schulz M, Slingo A, Tanré D, Tulet P. 2008. Overview of the dust and biomass-burning experiment and African monsoon multidisciplinary analysis special observing period-0. J. Geophys. Res. 113: D00C17, DOI: 10.1029/2008jd010077.
  • Haywood JM, Johnson BT, Osborne SR, Mulcahy J, Brooks ME, Harrison MAJ, Milton SF, Brindley HE. 2011. Observations and modelling of the solar and terrestrial radiative effects of Saharan dust: a radiative closure case-study over oceans during the GERBILS campaign. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137: 12111226, 137: 1211–1226, DOI: 10.1002/qj.770.
  • Heintzenberg J. 2009. The samum-1 experiment over southern morocco: overview and introduction. Tellus B 61: 211.
  • Johnson BT, Osborne SR. 2011. Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol measured by aircraft during the GERBILS campaign. Q. J. R. Meteorol. Soc. 137: 11171130, 137: 1117–1130, DOI: 10.1002/qj.777.
  • Kahnert M, Kylling A. 2004. Radiance and flux simulations for mineral dust aerosols: assessing the error due to using spherical or spheroidal model particles. J. Geophys. Res. 109: D09203, DOI: 10.1029/2003JD004318.
  • Kahnert M, Nousiainen T, Veihelmann B. 2005. Spherical and spheroidal model particles as an error source in aerosol climate forcing and radiance computations: a case study for feldspar aerosols. J. Geophys. Res. 110: D18S13, DOI: 10.1029/2004JD005558.
  • Kandler K, Benker N, Bundke U, Cuevas E, Ebert M, Knippertz P, Rodriguez S, Schutz L, Weinbruch S. 2007. Chemical composition and complex refractive index of Saharan Mineral Dust at Izaña, Tenerife (Spain) derived by electron microscopy. Atmos. Environ. 41: 80588074.
  • Kandler K, Schutz L, Deutscher C, Ebert M, Hofmann H, Jackel S, Jaenicke R, Knippertz P, Lieke K, Massling A, Petzold A, Schladitz A, Weinzierl B, Wiedensohler A, Zorn S, Weinbruch S. 2008. Size distribution, mass concentration, chemical and mineralogical composition and derived optical parameters of the boundary layer aerosol at Tinfou, Morocco, during SAMUM 2006. Tellus B 61: 3250.
  • Karickhoff SW, Bailey GW. 1973. Optical absorption spectra of clay minerals. Clays Clay Miner. 21: 5970.
  • Lafon S, Rajot JL, Alfaro SC, Gaudichet A. 2004. Quantification of iron oxides in desert aerosol. Atmos. Environ. 38: 12111218.
  • Lafon S, Sokolik IN, Rajot JL, Caquineau S, Gaudichet A. 2006. Characterization of iron oxides in mineral dust aerosols: Implications for light absorption. J. Geophys. Res. 111: D21207, DOI: 10.1029/2005JD007016.
  • Manning AJ, Ryall DB, Derwent RG, Simmonds PG, O'Doherty S. 2003. Estimating European emissions of ozone-depleting and greenhouse gases using observations and a modeling back-attribution technique. J. Geophys. Res. 108: 4405, DOI: 10.1029/2002JD002312.
  • Marsham JH, Parker DJ, Grams CM, Johnson BT, Grey WMF, Ross AN. 2008. Observations of mesoscale and boundary-layer scale circulations affecting dust transport and uplift over the Sahara. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 8: 69796993.
  • Maxwell JA, Teesdale WJ, Campbell JL. 1995. The Guelph PIXE software package II. Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Rev. Sect. B 95: 407421.
  • McConnell CL, Highwood EJ, Coe H, Formenti P, Anderson B, Osborne S, Nava S, Desboeufs K, Chen G, Harrison MAJ. 2008. Seasonal variations of the physical and optical characteristics of Saharan dust: results from the dust outflow and deposition to the ocean (DODO) experiment. J. Geophys. Res. 113: D14S05, DOI: 10.1029/2007jd009606.
  • McConnell CL, Formenti P, Highwood EJ, Harrison MAJ. 2010. Using aircraft measurements to determine the refractive index of Saharan dust during DODO. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 10: 30813098.
  • Mehra OP, Jackson ML. 1960. Iron oxide removal from soils and clays by a dithionite–citrate system buffered with sodium bicarbonate. Clays Clay Miner. 7: 317327.
  • Mishchenko MI, Travis LD, Kahn RA, West RA. 1997. Modeling phase functions for dustlike tropospheric aerosols using a shape mixture of randomly oriented polydisperse spheroids. J. Geophys. Res. 102(D14): 1683116847.
  • Müller T, Schladitz A, Massling A, Kaaden N, Kandler K, Wiedensohler A. 2009. Spectral absorption coefficients and imaginary parts of refractive indices of Saharan dust during SAMUM-1. Tellus B 61: 7995.
  • Osborne SR, Johnson BT, Haywood JM, Baran A, Harrison M, McConnell CL. 2008. Physical and optical properties of mineral dust aerosol during the Dust and Biomass-burning Experiment. J. Geophys. Res. 113: D00C03, DOI: 10.1029/2007JD009551.
  • Otto S, de Reus M, Trautmann T, Thomas A, Wendisch M, Borrmann S. 2007. Atmospheric radiative effects of an in-situ measured Saharan dust plume and the role of large particles. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 7: 48874903.
  • Otto S, Bierwirth E, Weinzierl B, Kandler K, Esselborn M, Tesche M, Schladitz A, Wendisch M, Trautmann T. 2009. Solar radiative effects of a Saharan dust plume observed during SAMUM assuming spheroidal model particles. Tellus B 61: 270296.
  • Petzold A, Rasp K, Weinzierl B, Esselborn M, Hamburger T, Dornbrack A, Kandler K, Schutz L, Knippertz P, Fiebig M, Virkkula A. 2009. Saharan dust absorption and refractive index from aircraft-based observations during SAMUM 2006. Tellus B 61: 118130.
  • Prospero JM, Ginoux P, Torres O, Nicholson SE, Gill TE. 2002. Environmental characterization of global sources of atmospheric soil dust identified with the nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (toms) absorbing aerosol product. Rev. Geophys. 40(1): 21231.
  • Queralt I, Sanfeliu T, Gomez E, Alvarez C. 2001. X-ray diffraction analysis of atmospheric dust using low-background supports. J. Aerospace Sci. 32: 453459.
  • Querry MR, Osborne G, Lies K, Jordon R, Coveney RM. 1978. Complex refractive index of limestone in the visible and infrared. Appl. Optics 17: 353356.
  • Rajot JL Valentin C. 2001. Wind eroded versus deposited mineral dust a mass budget for a Sahelian village land unit in Niger. In Soil Erosion Research for the 21st Century: Proceedings of the International Symposium, Ascough JC II, Flanagan DC (eds). Honululu, HI, 3–5 January 2001. American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE): St Joseph, MI; 404407.
  • Rajot JL, Formenti P, Alfaro S, Desboeufs K, Chevaillier S, Chatenet B, Gaudichet A, Journet E, Marticorena B, Triquet S, Maman A, Zakou A. 2008. AMMA dust experiment: an overview of measurements performed during the dry season special observation period (SOP0) at the Banizoumbou (Niger) supersite. J. Geophys. Res. 113: D00C14, DOI: 10.1029/2008JD009906.
  • Reid EA, Reid JS, Meier MM, Dunlap MR, Cliff SS, Broumas A, Perry K, Maring H. 2003. Characterization of African dust transported to Puerto Rico by individual particle and size segregated bulk analysis. J. Geophys. Res. 108: 8591, DOI: 10.1029/2002JD002935.
  • Sokolik I, Toon O. 1999. Incorporation of mineralogical composition into models of the radiative properties of mineral aerosol from UV to IR wavelengths. J. Geophys. Res. 104(D8): 94239444.
  • Sokolik IN, Winker DM, Bergametti G, Gillette DA, Carmichael G, Kaufman YJ, Gomes L, Schuetz L, Penner JE. 2001. Introduction to special section: outstanding problems in quantifying the radiative impacts of mineral dust. J. Geophys. Res. 106: 1801518027.
  • Sow M, Alfaro SC, Rajot JL, Marticorena B. 2009. Size resolved dust emission fluxes measured in Niger during 3 dust storms of the AMMA experiment. Atmos. Chem. Phys. 9: 38813891.
  • Tanré D, Haywood JM, Pelon J, Léon JF, Chatenet B, Formenti P, Francis P, Goloub P, Highwood EJ, Myhre G. 2003. Measurement and modeling of the Saharan dust radiative impact: overview of the SaHAran Dust Experiment (SHADE). J. Geophys. Res. 108(D13): 8574, DOI: 10.1029/2002JD003273.
  • Todd MC, Washington R, Martins JV, Dubovik O, Lizcano G, M'bainayel S, Engelstaedter S. 2007. Mineral dust emission from the Bodélé Depression, northern Chad, during BoDEx 2005. J. Geophys. Res. 112: D06207, DOI: 10.1029/2006jd007170.
  • Turner DD. 2008. Ground-based infrared retrievals of optical depth, effective radius, and composition of airborne mineral dust above the Sahel. J. Geophys. Res. 113: D00E03, DOI:10.1029/2008JD 010054.
  • Yang P, Feng Q, Hong G, Katawar GW, Wiscombe WJ, Mischenko MI, Dubovik O, Laszlo I, Sokolik IN. 2007. Modeling the scattering and radiative properties of nonspherical dust-like aerosols. J. Aerospace Sci. 38: 9951014.