The VSI chart has been investigated by many researchers under the assumption of known process parameters. However, in practice, these parameters are usually unknown and it is necessary to estimate them from the past data. In this paper, we evaluate and compare the performance of the VSI chart in terms of its average time to signal in the case where the process parameters are known and in the case where these parameters are estimated. We also provide new chart constants taking into account the number of phase I samples. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.