Today's military operating environments are more operationally diverse and technically challenging. Fielding relevant weapons systems to meet the demands of this environment is increasingly difficult, prompting policy shifts that mandate a focus on systems capable of combating a wide threat range. The capabilities-based test and evaluation construct is the Department of the Navy's effort to concentrate on integrated system design with the objective of satisfying a particular operational response (capability) under a robust range of operating conditions. One aspect of capabilities-based test and evaluation is the increased employment of advanced mathematical and statistical techniques in the test and evaluation (T&E) process. This case study illustrates advantages of incorporating these invaluable techniques, like design of experiments and modeling and simulation, within the T&E process. We found through statistical analysis that the application of design of experiment concepts to the System Under Test throughout three primary phases of T&E quantifiably improved the accomplishment of the selected response variable of interest. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.