Six Sigma as a quality improvement framework has been gaining considerable attention in recent years. The hyperbole that often accompanied the presentation and adoption of Six Sigma in industry could lead to unrealistic expectations as to what Six Sigma is truly capable of achieving. In this paper, some strategic perspectives on the subject are presented, highlighting the potential and possible limitations of Six Sigma applications particularly in a knowledge-based environment. Without delving into the mechanics of the subject in detail, the points raised could be useful to those deliberating on the appropriateness of Six Sigma to their respective organizations. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.