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Keywords:

  • free energy;
  • nonequilibrium;
  • simulation

Abstract

We discuss an adaptively biased molecular dynamics (ABMD) method for the computation of a free energy surface for a set of reaction coordinates. The ABMD method belongs to the general category of umbrella sampling methods with an evolving biasing potential. It is characterized by a small number of control parameters and an O(t) numerical cost with simulation time t. The method naturally allows for extensions based on multiple walkers and replica exchange mechanism. The workings of the method are illustrated with a number of examples, including sugar puckering, and free energy landscapes for polymethionine and polyproline peptides, and for a short β-turn peptide. ABMD has been implemented into the latest version (Case et al., AMBER 10; University of California: San Francisco, 2008) of the AMBER software package and is freely available to the simulation community. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2009