Interaction energy-based drug–receptor interaction study of metal–bicyclam complexes



Bicyclams inhibit HIV replication by binding to the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, which is the main coreceptor for gp120 used by X4, T-tropic strains of HIV for membrane fusion and cell entry. Bicyclam AMD3100 mainly interacts with the aspartic acid residues namely Asp171 and Asp262, which are located at the extracellular ends in the CXCR4 coreceptor. Incorporation of some metal ions by the macrocyclic rings of bicyclam enhances its binding affinity to the CXCR4 receptor and enhances their anti-HIV activity because the acetate can make a strong coordination bond to the metal and one weaker hydrogen bond to nitrogen in the cyclam ring. The interaction energy (Eint) between 150 metal–bicyclam complexes and aspartic acid has been evaluated. The metal–bicyclam complexes are obtained by the incorporation of six metal ions namely Fe3+, Co3+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, and Pd2+ in 25 well-known bicyclams including AMD3100. In most of the cases, Fe and Co–bicyclam complexes interact best with aspartic acid. The anti-HIV activity of metal–bicyclam complexes can be predicted on the basis of interaction energy before the synthesis of the metal–bicyclam complex. On the basis of interaction energy, the anti-HIV activity of bicyclam complexes can be predicted in advance to their synthesis. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2011