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Shape and location of multiple charge carriers in linear π-electron systems



We have performed a quantum-mechanical study of a series of neutral polyenes, their multiply charged ions, and related ionic polymethines with a closed electron shell, using different methods/basis with/without electron correlations. The study shows that a multiple injection of charge carriers into a collective system of π-electrons causes a formation of distinctive electron levels in the energy gap along with a simultaneous regular gap shift in accordance to the number of injected carriers. Each charge generates its own solitonic electron density alternation wave on adjacent carbon atoms, as well as similar bond length and valence angle alternation waves. Established regularities in charge distribution and variations of bond lengths and valence angles may be used in the molecular design of organic semiconducting materials. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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