Results are presented that were obtained on the geographic traceability of the white truffle Tuber magnatum Pico. Solid-phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS) was employed to characterize the volatile profile of T. magnatum white truffle produced in seven geographical areas of Italy. The main components of the volatile fraction were identified using SPME-GC/MS. Significant differences in the proportion of volatile constituents from truffles of different geographical areas were detected. The results suggest that, besides genetic factors, environmental conditions influence the formation of volatile organic compounds. The mass spectra of the volatile fraction of the samples were used as fingerprints to characterize the geographical origin. Next, stepwise factorial discriminant analysis afforded a limited number of characteristic fragment ions that allowed a geographical classification of the truffles studied. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.