We present data on the carbon (δ13C), nitrogen (δ15N) and sulfur (δ34S) isotope ratios of human hair collected in the central portions of the USA. These elements are incorporated into hair from the diet and thus provide a record of dietary inputs that may also document geospatial patterns. We detected regional differences in hair δ34S values across the USA, with the lowest values in the northern Great Plains and increasing values towards the east, west and south. In contrast, no statistically significant patterns were detected in the spatial variation of human hair δ13C and δ15N values. Using δ34S values and a Geographic Information System approach, we created a map (‘sulfur isoscape’). The accuracy of the map was tested using hair samples not included in its generation. We conclude that sulfur isotope analysis may represent a new tool to investigate the movements and/or region-of-origin of humans. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.