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Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), the incomplete combustion product of organic materials, is considered stable in soils and represents a potentially important terrestrial sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. One well-established method of measuring PyOM in the environment is as benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), a compound-specific method, which allows both qualitative and quantitative estimation of PyOM. Until now, stable isotope measurement of PyOM carbon involved measurement of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) or methyl (Me) polycarboxylic acid derivatives by gas chromatography–combustion–isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). However, BPCA derivatives can contain as much as 150% derivative carbon, necessitating post-analysis correction for the accurate measurement of δ13 C values, leading to increased measurement error. Here, we describe a method for δ13 C isotope ratio measurement and quantification of BPCAs from soil-derived PyOM, based on ion-exchange chromatography (IEC-IRMS). The reproducibility of the δ13 C measurement of individual BPCAs by IEC-IRMS was better than 0.35‰ (1σ). The δ13 C-BPCA analysis of PyOM in soils, including at natural and artificially enriched 13 C-abundance, produced accurate and precise δ13 C measurements. Analysis of samples that differed in δ13 C by as much as 900‰ revealed carryover of <1‰ between samples. The weighted sum of individual δ13 C-BPCA measurements was correlated with previous isotopic measurements of whole PyOM, providing complementary information for bulk isotopic measurements. We discuss potential applications of δ13 C-BPCA measurements, including the study of turnover rates of PyOM in soils and the partitioning of PyOM sources based on photosynthetic pathways. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.