Due to their health benefits, there is growing interest in the production and use of carotenoids from natural sources, e.g. microalgae. To date, only Haematococcus pluvialis and Dunaliella, that accumulate, respectively, astaxanthin and β-carotene in large quantities, are grown commercially. However, interest is also being focused on other xanthophylls, such as (all-E)-fucoxanthin characterized by anti-obesity and anti-carcinogenic effects. In this regard, rigorous chemical and analytical techniques following preparative isolation of components are needed to unequivocally identify individual carotenoids in microalgae.