Characterization of proanthocyanidins in grape seeds using electrospray mass spectrometry

Authors

  • Yoji Hayasaka,

    Corresponding author
    1. The Australian Wine Research Institute, P.O. Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
    2. Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture, P.O. Box 154, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
    • The Australian Wine Research Institute, P.O. Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia.
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  • Elizabeth J. Waters,

    1. The Australian Wine Research Institute, P.O. Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
    2. Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture, P.O. Box 154, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
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  • Véronique Cheynier,

    1. Unité Mixte de Recherche, SPO, IPV-INRA, 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1, France
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  • Markus J. Herderich,

    1. The Australian Wine Research Institute, P.O. Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
    2. Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture, P.O. Box 154, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
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  • Stéphane Vidal

    1. The Australian Wine Research Institute, P.O. Box 197, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
    2. Cooperative Research Centre for Viticulture, P.O. Box 154, Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
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Abstract

Two proanthocyanidin (PA) fractions, one (Sdp3) with the mean degree of polymerization (mDP) of 3 and the other (Sdp9) with mDP of 9, were obtained from a Vitis vinifera cv. Shiraz grape seed extract. The PA fractions were directly analyzed by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ES-MS) and negative ion mass spectra were recorded. The mass spectrum of Sdp3 exhibited only singly charged ions corresponding to the molecular mass of PA with a degree of polymerization (DP) up to 9 (nonamers). In contrast, Sdp9 yielded rather complex mass spectra featuring ions with single [M − H], double [M − 2H]2− and triple [M − 3H]3− charge representing the molecular masses of PAs up to a DP of 28. In addition, the degree of galloylation per procyanidin (DG) was observed to be up to 5 (pentagallates) in Sdp3 and 8 (octagallates) in the Sdp9. This is the first evidence obtained by mass spectrometry for the distribution of grape seed PAs with such a high degree of polymerization and a broad diversity of galloylation. ES-MS data together with the complementary information provided by acid hydrolysis provides a detailed picture of the composition of grape seed PAs. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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