Coronary artery disease is a global health concern, with increasing morbidity and mortality. Surgical coronary artery bypass grafting has been performed on cardiopulmonary bypass for nearly four decades, with excellent long-term durability. Beating-heart coronary surgery has been increasing in frequency in an attempt to decrease cardiopulmonary bypass-related morbidity. Furthermore, with increasing expertise and technology, minimally invasive and robotic techniques have been developed to enhance post-operative recovery, patient satisfaction and cosmesis. Several clinical trials have demonstrated decreased morbidity and more rapid recovery following off-pump, minimally invasive and robotic procedures when compared to on-pump coronary artery bypass grafts (CABGs). An equivalent extent of revascularization and medium-term anastomotic patency has been demonstrated among all approaches. Furthermore, for a large number of patients who do not have anatomy amenable to traditional coronary revascularization, adjunctive molecular therapies may provide alternative myocardial micro-revascularization. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.