Nanotechnology application to contaminated site remediation, and especially the use of nanoscale zero-valent iron particles to treat volatile organic compound (VOC)-impacted groundwater, is now recognized as a promising solution for cost-effective in situ treatment. Results obtained during numerous pilot tests undertaken by Golder Associates between 2003 and 2005 in North America (United States and Canada) and Europe have been used to present a synthetic cross-comparison of technology dynamics. The importance of a comprehensive understanding of the site-specific geological, hydrogeological, and geochemical conditions, the selection of appropriate nanoscale particles, the importance of monitoring geochemical parameters during technology application, and the potential of nanoparticle impact on microbial activity are discussed in this article. The variable technology dynamics obtained during six pilot tests (selected among numerous other tests) are then presented and discussed. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.