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Nanoscale zero valent iron (nZVI) was evaluated in a laboratory treatability study and subsequently injected as an interim measure to treat source area groundwater impacts beneath a former dry cleaner located in Chapel Hill, North Carolina (the site). Dry cleaning operations resulted in releases of tetrachloroethene (PCE) that impacted site soil at concentrations up to 2,700 mg/kg and shallow groundwater at concentrations up to 41 mg/L. To achieve a design loading rate of 0.001 kg of iron per kilogram of aquifer material, approximately 725 kg of NanoFe™ (PARS Environmental) was injected over a two-week period into a saprolite and partially weather rock aquifer. Strong reducing conditions were established with oxidation–reduction potential (ORP) values below –728 mV. pH levels remained greater than 8 standard units for a period of 12 months. Injections resulted in near elimination of PCE within one month. cis-1,2-Dichloroethene accumulated at high concentrations (greater than 65 mg/L) for 12 months. MAROS software (Version 2.2; AFCEE, 2006) was used to calculate mass reduction of PCE and total ethenes at 96 percent and 58 percent, respectively, compared to baseline conditions. Detections of acetylene confirmed the presence of the beta-elimination pathway. Detections of ethene confirmed complete dechlorination of PCE. Based on hydrogen gas generation, iron reactivity lasted 15 months. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.