The immobilization and encapsulation of contaminants using silica treatments is an emerging technology for the management of contaminated land. This article reviews the potential of silica treatments for the management of metals, hydrocarbons, and acid mine drainage at contaminated sites; and evaluates the effects of environmental conditions on silica treatment performance. The review demonstrates the potential of silica treatments for managing contaminated land; however, a paucity of research offers only a limited understanding of this technology. Further development of the technology will require additional research evaluating its long-term performance under a range of environmental conditions. Field-based experiments and studies investigating potential adverse effects of silica treatments are also necessary to demonstrate the safety, efficacy, and reliability of silica treatments. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.