Both psychosocial well-being and health behaviors are strongly linked to the process of disease and disability addressed in rehabilitation nursing. Social and behavioral factors including stress management, social and spiritual support, cigarette smoking, physical activity, and diet are associated with the quality of life and recovery process of rehabilitation patients. After the onset of the condition, and throughout the rehabilitation process, patients may still cope with the effects of treatment and mental distress in renegotiating their social roles. Treatments for conditions such as cancer, for example, may result in debilitating side effects and impairments (Chachaj et al., 2010; Shepard, 1993) as well as other chronic diseases. These phenomena can occur with stroke, where the physiological insult is the cause of the debilitation that can manifest in long-term disability. Despite this troubling context, medical and social-psychological research has demonstrated that patients have the capacity to make significant changes to their lives. These include drawing heavily on religious and spiritual resources (Balboni et al., 2007, 2010), seeking more meaning in life (Yanez et al., 2009), eating a healthier diet, getting more exercise and smoking cessation (Blanchard et al., 2003; Nordevang, Callmer, Marmur & Holm, 1992; Pinto, Eakin & Maruyama, 2000; Pinto & Trunzo, 2005). Even for individuals who are undergoing significant psychological and physical distress, the acknowledgment of lifestyle as a contributing factor in the onset of the condition may serve as a motivating factor in increasing health-seeking behavior both during and after rehabilitation (Andrykowski, Beacham, Schmidt & Harper, 2006). The health behaviors of the chronically ill and disabled are an increasingly important line of research and should be included in an integrative paradigm of rehabilitation nursing. Recent evidence links positive health behaviors to improved physical, emotional, and psychological health (Courneya & Friedenreich, 1997; Goldberg & Elliot, 1994; Pinto & Trunzo, 2005). Health behaviors such as alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking, lack of exercise, and diet are known to be major risk factors for chronic illness and disability (Denmark-Wahnefried, Peterson, McBride, Lipkus & Clipp, 2000). Psychosocial factors that buffer stress have also been consistently tied to immune and neuroendocrine function, disability, recovery, and mortality (Koenig & Cohen, 2002). In this vein, emerging studies conclude that religious and spiritual factors play a role in preventing and coping with disability (Benjamins, 2004; Benjamins & Brown, 2004). This has particular salience in the rehabilitation setting, where permanent disabling conditions may provoke existential concerns and a renegotiation of self-concept. A part of this reconstruction of identity may be a patient's lifestyle (Giddens, 1991). This opportunity for lifestyle changes is evident in the large portion of Americans who use integrative medicine to prevent disease and disability (Eisenberg et al., 1998; Ness et al., 2005). Patients consistently report a desire to take more control over their health (Ruggie, 2004), and rehabilitation is particularly suited to incorporating healing modalities and practices intended to be part of a lifestyle rather than to treat acute disease. Clinicians and rehabilitation nurses may provide a clinical context in which lifestyle changes and adaptation to the social and psychological stress are a central part of the patient's treatment plan.