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Reviews of Geophysics

Cover image for Reviews of Geophysics

June 2012

Volume 50, Issue 2

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      The Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII) on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite: A 20 year perspective

      G. G. Shepherd, G. Thuillier, Y.-M. Cho, M.-L. Duboin, W. F. J. Evans, W. A. Gault, C. Hersom, D. J. W. Kendall, C. Lathuillère, R. P. Lowe, I. C. McDade, Y. J. Rochon, M. G. Shepherd, B. H. Solheim, D.-Y. Wang and W. E. Ward

      Article first published online: 8 JUN 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2012RG000390

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      Key Points

      • Doppler Michelson interferometers excel in atmospheric space wind measurements
      • Upper atmosphere winds dramatically influence atomic oxygen concentrations
      • The thermosphere has enormous scope for future atmospheric dynamics measurements
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      The faint young Sun problem

      Georg Feulner

      Article first published online: 25 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011RG000375

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      Key Points

      • The faint young Sun problem is reviewed
      • The problem should be investigated with state-of-the-art climate models
      • Improved geochemical constraints on the Archean climate are required
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      A review of global terrestrial evapotranspiration: Observation, modeling, climatology, and climatic variability

      Kaicun Wang and Robert E. Dickinson

      Article first published online: 24 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011RG000373

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      Key Points

      • A thorough review of E from a climatic variability perspective
      • Large uncertainties in E climatic variability
      • Partition of total E is a key point to improve modeling and satellite retrieval
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      Changes in permeability caused by transient stresses: Field observations, experiments, and mechanisms

      Michael Manga, Igor Beresnev, Emily E. Brodsky, Jean E. Elkhoury, Derek Elsworth, S. E. Ingebritsen, David C. Mays and Chi-Yuen Wang

      Article first published online: 12 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011RG000382

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      Key Points

      • Distant earthquakes affect hydrological processes
      • Time varying stresses can change fluid mobility by dislodging particles and bubbles
      • Monitoring geothermal systems with abundant seismicity may yield new insights
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      Paleoceanography of the Atlantic-Mediterranean exchange: Overview and first quantitative assessment of climatic forcing

      M. Rogerson, E. J. Rohling, G. R. Bigg and J. Ramirez

      Article first published online: 9 MAY 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011RG000376

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      Key Points

      • The Gibraltar exchange responds to climate
      • This response is not intuitive
      • Exchange is an important buffer to Atlantic thermohaline collapse
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      Upscaling sparse ground-based soil moisture observations for the validation of coarse-resolution satellite soil moisture products

      Wade T. Crow, Aaron A. Berg, Michael H. Cosh, Alexander Loew, Binayak P. Mohanty, Rocco Panciera, Patricia de Rosnay, Dongryeol Ryu and Jeffrey P. Walker

      Article first published online: 19 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011RG000372

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      Key Points

      • Satellite soil moisture retrievals are obtained at coarse spatial resolutions
      • It is difficult to validate them using point-scale ground observations
      • Credible soil moisture upscaling strategies exist to address the problem
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      Impact of aerosols on convective clouds and precipitation

      Wei-Kuo Tao, Jen-Ping Chen, Zhanqing Li, Chien Wang and Chidong Zhang

      Article first published online: 17 APR 2012 | DOI: 10.1029/2011RG000369

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      Key Points

      • Fundamental theories of the effects of aerosols on cloud microphysical processes
      • Observations and modeling of aerosol effects on precipitation and weather
      • Issues and uncertainties in studying aerosol effects on precipitation

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