This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.
EMERGENT SANDBAR CONSTRUCTION FOR LEAST TERNS ON THE MISSOURI RIVER: EFFECTS ON FORAGE FISHES IN SHALLOW-WATER HABITATS†
Article first published online: 18 APR 2011
Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
River Research and Applications
Volume 28, Issue 8, pages 1254–1265, October 2012
How to Cite
Stucker, J. H., Buhl, D. A. and Sherfy, M. H. (2012), EMERGENT SANDBAR CONSTRUCTION FOR LEAST TERNS ON THE MISSOURI RIVER: EFFECTS ON FORAGE FISHES IN SHALLOW-WATER HABITATS. River Res. Applic., 28: 1254–1265. doi: 10.1002/rra.1525
- Issue published online: 8 OCT 2012
- Article first published online: 18 APR 2011
- Manuscript Accepted: 28 FEB 2011
- Manuscript Revised: 17 FEB 2011
- Manuscript Received: 23 AUG 2010
- least tern;
- Missouri River;
- shallow water
Emergent sandbars on the Missouri River are actively managed for two listed bird species, piping plovers and interior least terns. As a plunge-diving piscivore, endangered least terns rely on ready access to appropriately sized slender-bodied fish: <52 mm total length for adults and <34 mm total length for young chicks. As part of a multi-agency recovery programme, aimed at enhancing nesting habitat for plovers and terns, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers mechanically created several emergent sandbars on the Missouri River. However, it was unknown whether sandbar construction is a benefit or a detriment to forage abundance for least terns. Therefore, we studied the shallow-water (<1.5 m) fish community near river and mechanically created emergent sandbars during three nesting seasons (2006–2008). We sampled every 2 weeks each year from late May to July within 15–16 areas to document the relative abundance, species richness and size classes of fish. Fish relative abundance was negatively related to depth. Catches were dominated by schooling species, including emerald shiner, sand shiner, spotfin shiner and bigmouth buffalo. Significant inter-annual differences in relative abundance were observed, with generally increasing trends in intra-seasonal relative abundance of shiners and the smallest size classes of fish (<34 mm). Significant differences in the fish communities between the sandbar types were not detected in this study. Results suggest that mechanical sandbar habitats host comparable fish communities at similar levels of relative abundance. Further analyses are required to evaluate if the levels of fish relative abundance are adequate to support least tern foraging and reproduction. Published in 2011 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.