Longitudinal changes in macroinvertebrate assemblages in the Meuse River: anthropogenic effects versus natural change

Authors

  • Philippe Usseglio-Polatera,

    Corresponding author
    1. Université de Metz, UPRES E.B.S.E., Laboratoire de Démoécologie, Campus Bridoux, Rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz-Borny, France
    2. Université de Lyon, UMR 5023 CNRS ‘Ecologie des Hydrosystèmes fluviaux’, Boulevard du 11 Novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France
    • Université de Metz, UPRES E.B.S.E., Laboratoire de Démoécologie, Campus Bridoux, Rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz-Borny, France
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  • Jean-Nicolas Beisel

    1. Université de Metz, UPRES E.B.S.E., Laboratoire de Démoécologie, Campus Bridoux, Rue du Général Delestraint, 57070 Metz-Borny, France
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Abstract

A collaborative study among three nations (France, Belgium, Netherlands) along the Meuse River developed a consistent approach for collecting and interpreting macroinvertebrate data. Specific mesohabitats were sampled in 16 locations along an 800-km stretch of this lowland regulated river. The objective was to assess the ‘river health’ using macroinvertebrate communities as indicators of biological and ecological variation in space. The main changes in assemblages were investigated using multimetric and multivariate approaches. The authors examined relationships between faunal variations and both physico-chemical gradients and man-made disturbances. We related species traits to faunal changes and habitat characteristics.

Both a gradual shift from a macroinvertebrate assemblage dominated by insects to a community dominated by crustaceans and molluscs and a drastic decrease in biotic index values were observed along the longitudinal gradient. Taxa were distributed according to oxygen, nitrate and ammonium concentrations, pH, conductivity and summer hydraulic conditions. But major faunal differences among sites could not be explained simply by physico-chemical variables. The trait analysis underlined the role of temporary habitats in structuring the summer macroinvertebrate community of sites of the uppermost French sector, which supported the most diverse community in terms of trait combination. Downstream the macroinvertebrate community exhibited a more simple and less stable functional organization.

We concluded that the Meuse River exhibited both a high biodiversity and a ‘reasonably good’ water quality in the upper reaches. Two transition zones highlighted the influence of a high degree of human impact on stream integrity. Regulation for navigation, ship traffic and heavily polluted effluent discharges influenced instream conditions via multiple processes determining a decline of both habitat stability and diversity. However, the rare occurrence of habitat-sensitive species in the lower reaches indicated that a partial recovery of communities may be predicted if restoration and protection of disturbed (especially riparian) habitats are fulfilled. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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