Adolescents' Constructively Responsive Reading Strategy Use in a Critical Internet Reading Task

Authors


Abstract

The Internet is central to understanding literacies in the 21st century, and explication of reading strategies situated in Internet settings contributes to both our understanding of reading and our support of students in the Internet age. The purpose of this study was to examine the complexity of Internet reading strategies used by seven accomplished high school readers. Individual participants read on the Internet, with the goal of developing critical questions about their chosen contemporary controversial topic. Internet reading strategies were analyzed using participants' verbal reports, triangulated with complementary data (e.g., computer screen recordings). The data describe the nature and sequence of readers' strategies categorized into (a) realizing and constructing potential texts, (b) identifying and learning information, (c) evaluating and sourcing texts, and (d) monitoring and managing reading. Results demonstrate the role that these strategies play in constructing meaning from Internet texts, as well as the interactive patterns of strategy use in both open and closed Internet settings.

Chinese

互联网是理解21世纪读写文化之核心,而在互联网设置中所阐明的阅读策略,有助于我们在互联网时代对阅读及给予学生帮助之理解。本研究旨在考查七个高中熟练阅读者所使用的互联网阅读策略之复杂性。研究参与者各自在互联网上选读具争议性的当代话题,以发展对该话题作批判性提问为目标。研究资料分析采用三角測量方法,研究资料包括从参与者的口头报告中取得的阅读策略和其它补充研究资料(例如,计算机屏幕记录)。研究资料中与阅读策略性质与次序相关的描述被分为四类:(1)意识和建构潜在的文本、(2)识别和学习信息、(3)评价和寻觅文本来源、(4)监察和管理阅读。研究结果显示出这些阅读策略在从互联网文本构建意义中所发挥的作用,也显示出在开放式和关闭式的互联网设置中使用这些阅读策略的互动模式。

Spanish

El Internet es fundamental para el entendimiento de las competencias del siglo 21, y explicar las estrategias de lectura que se encuentran en el Internet contribuye a nuestro entendimiento sobre la lectura tanto como a nuestro apoyo del estudiante en la era del Internet. El propósito de este estudio es examinar la complejidad de las estrategias de lectura del Internet usadas por siete estudiantes logrados de escuelas superior. Cada estudiante leyó en el Internet, con el fin de desarrollar preguntas críticas sobre el tema controversial contemporáneo que ellos mismos escogieron. Se analizaron las estrategias de lectura del Internet usando informes orales de los participantes, triangulados con datos complementarios (por ejemplo, grabaciones en la pantalla de la computadora). Los datos describen la naturaleza y el orden de las estrategias lectoras categorizadas en (a) la creación y construcción de textos potenciales, (b) la identificación y el aprendizaje de la información, (c) la evaluación y la categorización de textos, y (d) la supervisión y el control de la lectura. Los resultados demuestran el rol que estas estrategias juegan en la construcción de significado de los textos en el Internet, así como los patrones interactivos del uso de estrategias en marcos del Internet tanto cerrados o abiertos.

Arabic

إن الشابكة مركز لفهم عملية التعلم في القرن الحادي والعشرين ويساهم شرح إستراتيجيات القراءة المتواجدة في محيط الشابكة في كل من فهمنا للقراءة ودعمنا للطلاب في عصر الشابكة. وتهدف هذه الدراسة إلى استقراء تعقيد إستراتيجيات القراءة على الشابكة المستخدمة من قبل سبعة قراء ناجحين في مدرسة ثانوية. لقد قرأ مشتركون كل على حدة من على الشابكة بهدف تطوير أسئلة ناقدة بشأن موضوعهم المختار المعاصر الجدلي. وتم تحليل إستراتيجيات القراءة على الشابكة باستخدام تقارير المشتركين الشفهية الماسحة بالتثليث مع معطيات تكميلية (مثلاً سجلات شاشة الحاسوب). وتصف المعطيات طبعية إستراتيجيات القراء وترتيبها وتندرج في (أ) إدراك نصوص محتملة وإنشاءها و(ب) تحديد معلومات وتعلمها و(ج) تقييم نصوص وتأصيلها و(د) مراقبة القراءة وإدارتها. وتبدي النتائج الدور الذي تلعبه هذه الإستراتيجيات في إنشاء المعنى من نصوص الشابكة وكذلك الأنماط التفاعلية لدى استخدام الإستراتيجية سواء أكان في سياقي الشابكة المفتوحة أم المغلقة.

Russian

Интepнeт – cpeдoтoчиe вcex видoв гpaмoтнocти, пpaктикyeмыx в XXI вeкe, пoэтoмy и paди ceбя, и paди cвoиx yчeникoв yчитeль дoлжeн ocвoить cтpaтeгии чтeния в ceти. Цeль дaннoгo иccлeдoвaния: пpoaнaлизиpoвaть cлoжнoe coчeтaниe мeтoдoв и пpиeмoв чтeния в виpтyaльнoм пpocтpaнcтвe, кoтopыe пpимeняют ceмь oпытныx читaтeлeй-cтapшeклaccникoв. Кpитичecки мыcлящиe yчacтники иccлeдoвaния пoльзoвaлиcь интepнeтoм, чтoбы пoзнaкoмитьcя c мнeниями пo выбpaннoй ими нeoднoзнaчнoй coвpeмeннoй тeмe и oпpeдeлить кpyг вoпpocoв, кoтopыe oни xoтeли бы для ceбя выяcнить. Cтpaтeгии, пpимeнявшиecя ими для чтeния в ceти, aнaлизиpoвaлиcь нa ocнoвe иx cлoвecныx oтчeтoв в coчeтaнии c дoпoлнитeльными дaнными (нaпpимep, зaпиcью c мoнитopa иx кoмпьютepoв). Пoлyчeнныe дaнныe oпиcывaют пpиpoдy и пocлeдoвaтeльнocть cтpaтeгий чтeния, cpeди кoтopыx ecть cтpaтeгии для (a) пoнимaния и кoнcтpyиpoвaния пoтeнциaльныx тeкcтoв, (б) идeнтификaции и ycвoeния инфopмaции, (в) oцeнивaния тeкcтoв и oпpeдeлeния дocтoвepнocти иcтoчникoв и (г) мoнитopингa и peгyлиpoвaния пpoцecca чтeния. Peзyльтaты дeмoнcтpиpyют, кaкyю poль игpaют эти cтpaтeгии пpи кoнcтpyиpoвaнии cмыcлa из интepнeт-тeкcтoв, a тaкжe пo кaким тpaeктopиям пpoиcxoдит чтeниe в oткpытoм и зaкpытoм интepнeт-пpocтpaнcтвe.

French

Internet est au centre de la compréhension des littératies du 21e siècle, et expliquer les stratégies de lecture sur Internet peut permettre à la fois de comprendre notre façon de lire et d'aider nos élèves à l’âge d'Internet. Cette étude a pour but d'examiner la complexité des stratégies de lecture sur Internet de sept bons lecteurs du secondaire. Chacun des participants a lu individuellement sur Internet dans le but d’élaborer des questions critiques relatives à un sujet de débat actuel de leur choix. Nous avons analysé leurs stratégies de lecture sur Internet en nous basant sur les rapports oraux faits par les participants, et en les croisant avec des données complémentaires (par exemple des captures d’écrans). Les résultats permettent de décrire la nature et l'ordonnancement des stratégies de lecture suivantes : a) réaliser et construire des textes possibles, b) identifier et s'approprier des informations, c) évaluer et trouver les textes ressource, et d) contrôler et gérer la lecture. Les résultats mettent en évidence le rôle que jouent ces stratégies pour construire du sens avec des textes sur Internet, ainsi que les différents types de stratégie qui interagissent tant dans en situation ouverte que fermée sur Internet.

The Internet introduces a fundamentally intertextual landscape in which the reading processes and outcomes vary considerably, according to how the reader approaches unbounded nonlinear texts (Burbules & Callister, 1996; Landow, 2006). This (con)textual feature demands sophisticated reading strategies in learning from multiple Internet texts with varied forms, meanings, and qualities (Goldman, 2010). Further, Internet readers must make informed decisions about what texts to read and how to identify useful texts (Afflerbach & Cho, 2009). Such reading involves complexities that are related to but different from those involved in print-based reading (Leu, Kinzer, Coiro, & Cammack, 2004).

Although there is ample research on comprehension with traditional texts (Graesser, Gernsbacher, & Goldman, 2003; McNamara, 2007; Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995) and also growing research focused on online reading comprehension (Afflerbach & Cho, 2009; Leu at al., 2004), much remains unknown about how strategic readers negotiate meaning with a variety of texts on the Internet. Research that yields descriptions of reading strategy use situated in online settings has several possible benefits for both theory and practice. Research helps refine models of reading that describe readers choosing, interpreting, and evaluating Internet texts (Alexander & the Disciplined Reading and Learning Research Laboratory, 2012). Research also informs our understanding of the strategies and mind-sets that are necessary for successful Internet reading. This knowledge can inform best practices in teaching and assessing new forms of reading (Pellegrino, Chudowsky, & Glaser, 2001; RAND Reading Study Group, 2002).

The goal of this study was to contribute to the evolving understanding of reading through the analysis of reading strategies inferred from readers' verbal reports. To this end, this study examined seven accomplished adolescent readers and their use of reading strategies, as situated in a critical reading task to find, select, and learn from Internet texts related to contemporary controversial topics (e.g., climate changes, alternative energy, fast food). The focus of this examination was on the complexities of strategic Internet readings by these accomplished adolescent readers. Two research questions, regarding types and patterns of online reading strategies, guided the study:

  1. What types of reading strategies do accomplished high school readers use in Internet settings to develop critical questions about their chosen topic?
  2. What insights about patterns of reading strategy use can be derived from these adolescents' reading in both open and closed Internet text environments?

Theoretical Framework

Informed by research on reading comprehension, intertextuality, and new literacies, this study draws on the model of constructively responsive reading to analyze types and patterns of Internet reading strategies. The model integrates the insights from accomplished readers' verbal reports into strategic reading in both print- and Internet-based contexts (Afflerbach & Cho, 2009; Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995) and offers an account of traditional and new forms of reading.

Constructively responsive reading is marked by the reader's conscious processes that contribute to constructing meaning and serve reading goals. The model suggests that accomplished readers situate their thoughts and behaviors within Internet text environments. These readers orchestrate both traditional, print-reading strategies—learning important information from texts (Hartman, 1995; Hoffman, Wu, Krajcik, & Soloway, 2003), monitoring their own reading processes (Coiro & Dobler, 2007; Garner, 1987), and evaluating different aspects of texts (Wiley et al., 2009; Wineburg, 1991)—and novel strategies to navigate and choose texts that are potentially useful to their goal attainment (Salmeron, Canas, Kintsch, & Fajardo, 2005; Zhang and Duke, 2008). These strategies are central to successful Internet reading when readers determine their own unique reading paths and build a coherent understanding of what they learn from texts.

Method

Seven students from a public high school in a mid-Atlantic state (mean age = 17.50 years) participated in the study. The participants were purposefully selected as accomplished readers (Afflerbach, 2000) from an advanced placement social studies class, based on standardized test scores, grade point averages, teacher observations of students' literacy activities, and results from a performance assessment of Internet reading. Once selected, the participants individually read online in two 45-minute sessions to develop critical questions about their chosen controversial topic. The participants read in an open-ended, unconstrained Internet setting to select three websites deemed useful to learning about their topic (session 1), and then read in a closed-ended Internet setting to focus on learning only within their selected websites (session 2). The students created and submitted their critical questions upon completion of their reading.

Methodological triangulation was used to better infer the participants' reading strategy use (Denzin, 1978). Primary data were participant-generated verbal reports during reading, which informed the generation of inferences about what and how strategies were planned, performed, and assessed. Secondary data were screen recordings synchronized with verbal reports, which allowed the observation of where the participants were reading and navigating. Additional sources of information (e.g., interviews, prior knowledge reports, critical questions, selected websites) contributed to the description of the situated nature of the participants' reading performance.

Verbal protocol analysis was conducted (Ericsson & Simon, 1980), framed within the model of constructively responsive reading (Afflerbach & Cho, 2009; Pressley & Afflerbach, 1995). Transcribed verbal reports with screen recordings were parsed out into the smallest segments of strategic action marked with time stamps. These segments were then interrelated and grouped into multilevel categories (Glaser & Strauss, 1967): A total of 1,784 strategic actions used by the seven participants were encoded into the rubric of top-level strategies. Inter-coder reliability was established with a colleague with expertise in reading strategy and protocol analysis through coding practices, disagreement resolutions, and constructing coding schemes.

Those encoded strategic actions were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively. A catalog of Internet reading strategies was constructed to describe diverse strategy types identified in the study. In addition, profiles of the individual participants' processing chains were created to visually represent the sequences of their strategic reading. Finally, a chi-square analysis was performed to detect patterns of strategy use in both open and closed Internet reading sessions (Strømsø, Bråten, & Samuelstuen, 2003).

Results and Discussion

Three major results are noted. First, the data describe the group of strategies unique to Internet reading, as well as copious strategies used in both Internet- and print-based reading. Specifically, the participating readers used complex Internet reading strategies for (1) realizing and constructing potential texts (e.g., managing goal-relevant information spaces, navigating hyperlinks toward useful texts). They also applied print-based reading strategies in situ for (2) identifying and learning information (e.g., making sense of hyperlinks, comprehending webpage content, building cross-textual linkages), (3) evaluating and sourcing texts (e.g., examining hyperlinks, judging webpage content, assessing website qualities), and (4) monitoring and managing reading (e.g., monitoring meaning construction, managing path determination, reflecting on the self). The presence of these four top-level strategies illustrates the interplay of new and traditional reading strategies. The strategies work jointly as readers determine the reading paths that are suitable for constructing meaning from Internet texts.

Quantitative analysis of the encoded strategic actions indicates that the seven participants' reading strategies are patterned differently according to text environments. The chi-square analysis results in a statistically significant association between strategy (four top-level strategies) and Internet reading session (open-ended and closed-ended): X2(3, N = 1,784) = 52.86, p < .001. This result shows that the participants adjusted their reading, by differentiating cognitive engagement in different strategy types, based within particular online settings. The subsequent standardized residual analysis details this context dependency of strategy use, showing the patterns in which strategies for realizing and constructing potential texts featured more prominently in the open-ended Internet setting, whereas strategies for identifying and learning information were more extensively used in the closed-ended Internet setting. Notably, this quantitative analysis demonstrates the importance of strategies for both monitoring and evaluation: The participants used these strategies constantly across the two online reading sessions. This result suggests that reading strategy use is shaped in part by the nature of text environments when readers metacognitively coordinate multiple strategies in different patterns according to the extent to which text environments are open or closed.

The profiles of the student readers' processing chains demonstrate that Internet reading strategy use largely relies on the ways in which readers approach text environments. Although group characteristics exist, variability in extensiveness and intensiveness of strategy use are also found among individuals. For example, information gatherers focused more on search engine use, link selection, and site navigation, rather than comprehension of online sources, but critical examiners were involved more in identifying a problem space, formulating questions, and building a cross-textual understanding, while avoiding extensive Internet searching and browsing. This result shows that constructively responsive readers actively explore their own unique, individualized pathways to task accomplishment.

Our understanding of reading evolves as we continue to examine and explicate reading strategies in changing literacy contexts. This study offers insights into the types, patterns, and complexities of reading strategies used in seven adolescents' Internet reading. The results suggest that situated uses of constructively responsive strategies involve dynamic combinations of both new and traditional reading strategies toward identifying useful texts, constructing meaning, and completing reading tasks. The results also suggest that strategy use is molded differently by the extent to which text environments are fluid and open and by the approaches readers undertake in response to the environments. The insights into Internet reading provided by this study suggest future research foci that include the examination of how readers' knowledge, beliefs, and dispositions toward text, reading, and the Internet may affect their engagement in using different reading strategies.

Biography

  • Byeong-Young Cho is an assistant professor in literacy education in the School of Education at Iowa State University, Ames, USA; e-mail choby@iastate.edu. He completed his dissertation at the University of Maryland, College Park under the chairship of Peter Afflerbach. Cho was a National Academy of Education Adolescent Literacy Predoctoral Fellow and received his Ph.D. in Curriculum and Instruction (with a specialization in Reading Education) from the University of Maryland, College Park. He received his M.Ed. and B.A. at Korea University and worked as a high school language teacher and curriculum designer in Seoul, Korea. The focus of his research is on new literacies, with a particular interest in examining strategic reading of multiple Internet sources.

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