In this study, two series of 11 samples of TiAl6V4 titanium alloy and 316L stainless steel have been polished in an isotropic manner at different levels in order to quantify the influence of biomaterial roughness on cell behavior. Topography was measured by a tactile profilometer and a multiscale analysis has been carried out. Human osteoblasts have been cultured on those samples. It appears that roughness has no reproducible effect on the cell behavior except an influence on cell orientation on the wider grooves. As a conclusion, biomaterial surface damage, in the roughness range between Ra = 0.01 and 0.1 μm, has no influence on cell-adhesion mechanisms when roughness is isotropic and groove width is inferior to a critical value. SCANNING 36:2–10, 2014. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.