Colorectal carcinoma (CRC) has high mortality and increased incidence rates. An early detection of CRC is very important. Multiphoton microscopy (MPM) with high resolution and high sensitivity is used to effectively distinguish the microstructure changes of normal and mucinous adenocarcinoma slices of ex vivo human colonic tissues. In mucinous adenocarcinoma mucosa, the glands are distorted and elongated, the gland cavity is indistinct, and the mesh collagen fibers are diminished. In the submucosa, the collagens are seriously disordered, elongated, pushed aside, and sparsely visible, the content of elastic fibers is also broken and almost disappearing. Many cancer cells, some in cavity-like shape full of mucus surrounded by some collagen fibers, occupied the submucosa, which are comparable to hematoxylin-eosin (HE) stained images. Second harmonic generation and two-photon excitation fluorescence (SHG/TPEF) intensity ratio can be used further to quantitatively evaluate normality and abnormality. The fast Fourier transform (FFT) images show that the normal collagen fibrils are dense and in random order, and the cancerous collagen is certainly organized. The exploratory results show that it has potential for the development of multiphoton mini-endoscopy in real-time early diagnosis of CRC. SCANNING 35: 277-282, 2013. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.