Charge accumulation in insulating or semiconducting samples due to electron beam irradiation is one of the key problems in electron microscopy. One of the most promising techniques for reducing the severity of such charging is to surround the sample with a low-pressure atmosphere of a gas. The charging behavior of a number of materials, surrounded by a variety of gases, has been determined to identify the important factors which control charging under these conditions. The magnitude of the surface potential was deduced from an analysis of xray spectra from the surface. The relationship between surface charge, gas pressure, and gas type are measured, and the charging reduction efficiency (CRE) is compared.