SEARCH

SEARCH BY CITATION

REFERENCES

  • Abrams, E., Southerland, S., & Cummins, C. (2001). The how's and why's of biological change: How learners neglect physical mechanisms in their search for meaning. International Journal of Science Education, 23(12), 12711281.
  • Bechtel, W., & Abrahamsen, A. (2005). Explanation: A mechanist alternative. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 36, 421441.
  • Black, P., & Wiliam, D. (1998). Assessment and classroom learning. Assessment in Education: Principles, Policy & Practice, 5(1), 774.
  • Bruner, J. (1960). The process of education. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
  • Coffey, J. E. (2003). Involving students in assessment. In J. M.Atkin & J. E.Coffey (Eds.), Everyday assessment in the science classroom (pp. 7588). Arlington, VA: National Science Teachers Association Press.
  • Craver, C. F. (2002). Interlevel experiments and multilevel mechanisms in the neuroscience of memory. Philosophy of Science (Supplement), 69, S83S97.
  • Darden, L. (1998). The nature of scientific inquiry. Retrieved October 31, 2005 from http://www.philosophy.umd.edu/Faculty/LDarden/sciinq/index.html
  • Darden, L. (2002). Strategies for discovering mechanisms: Schema instantiation, modular subassembly, forward/backward chaining. Philosophy of Science (Supplement), 69, S354S365.
  • Darden, L., & Craver, C. F. (2002). Strategies in the interfield discovery of the mechanism of protein synthesis. Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, 33, 128.
  • Darling Hammond, L., Ancess, J., & Falk, B. (1995). Authentic assessment in action: Studies of schools and students at work. New York: Teachers College Press.
  • Driver, R., Newton, P., & Osborne, J. (2000). Establishing the norms of scientific argumentation in classrooms. Science Education, 84, 287312.
  • Glennan, S. S. (1996). Mechanisms and the nature of causation. Erktenntnis, 44, 4971.
  • Gopnik, A., & Sobel, D. M. (2000). Detecting blickets: How young children use information about novel causal powers in categorization and induction. Child Development, 71(5), 12051222.
  • Gopnik, A., Sobel, D. M., Schulz, L. E., & Glymour, C. (2001). Causal learning mechanisms in very young children: Two-, three-, and four-year-olds infer causal relations from patterns of variation and covariation. Developmental Psychology, 37(5), 620629.
  • Hammer, D. (1995). Student inquiry in a physics class discussion. Cognition and Instruction, 13, 401430.
  • Hammer, D., & Elby, A. (2002). On the form of a personal epistemology. In B. K.Hofer & P. R.Pintrich (Eds.), Personal epistemology: The psychology of beliefs about knowledge and knowing (pp. 169190). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
  • Hodson, D. (1988). Toward a philosophically valid science curriculum. Science Education, 72(1), 1940.
  • Koslowski, B. (1996). Theory and evidence: The development of scientific reasoning. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
  • Kuhn, D. (1989). Children and adults as intuitive scientists. Psychological Review, 96(4), 674689.
  • Lampert, M. (2001). Teaching problems and the problems of teaching. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
  • Lehrer, R., & Schauble, L. (2005). Cultivating model-based reasoning in science education. In K.Sawyer (Ed.), The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (pp. 371387). Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press.
  • Machamer, P. (2004). Activities and causation: The metaphysics and epistemology of mechanisms. International Studies in the Philosophy of Science, 18(1), 2739.
  • Machamer, P., Darden, D., & Craver, C. (2000). Thinking about mechanisms. Philosophy of Science, 67, 125.
  • Metz, K. E. (1991). Development of explanation: Incremental and fundamental change in children's physics knowledge. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 28(9), 785797.
  • National Research Council (1999). How people learn: Brain, mind, experience, and school. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning, J. D. Bransford, A. L. Brown, & R. R. Cocking (Eds.). Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
  • National Research Council (2000). Inquiry and the National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Committee on Development of an Addendum to the National Science Education Standards on Scientific Inquiry. Center for Science, Mathematics, and Engineering Education.
  • National Research Council. (2001a). Knowing what students know: The science and design of educational assessment. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Committee on the Foundations of Assessment. J.Pelligrino, N.Chudowsky, & R.Glaser (Eds.). Board on Testing and Assessment, Center for Education. Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
  • National Research Council. (2001b). Classroom assessment and the National Science Education Standards. Washington, DC: National Academy Press. Committee on Classroom Assessment and the National Science Education Standards. J.Myron Atkin, P.Black, & J.Coffey (Eds.). Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
  • National Research Council. (2007). Taking science to school: Learning and teaching science in grades K-8. Washington, DC: National Academies Press. Committee on Science Learning, Kindergarten Through Eighth Grade. R. A.Duschl, H. A.Schweingruber, & A. W.Shouse (Eds.). Center for Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education.
  • Nersessian, N. J. (1992). How do scientists think? Capturing the dynamics of conceptual change in science. In R. N.Giere (Ed.), Cognitive models of science (pp. 345). Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.
  • Passmore, C., & Stewart, J. (2002). A modeling approach to teaching evolutionary biology in high schools. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 39(3), 185204.
  • Russ, R. S., Scherr, R. E., Hammer, D., & Mikeska, J. (2008). Recognizing mechanistic reasoning in student scientific inquiry: A framework for discourse analysis developed from philosophy of science. Science Education, 92, 499525.
  • Salmon, W. C. (1978). Why ask, “Why?”? An inquiry concerning scientific explanation. Proceedings of the 52nd Annual Meeting of the American Philosophical Association, 51, 683705.
  • Shapin, S. (1996). The scientific revolution. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
  • Stewart, J., Cartier, J. L., & Passmore, C. M. (2005). Developing understanding through model-based inquiry. In National Research Council (Ed.), How students learn: History, mathematics, and science in the classroom (pp. 515566). Washington, DC: National Academies Press.
  • Tabery, J. G. (2004). Synthesizing activities and interactions in the concept of a mechanism. Philosophy of Science, 71, 115.
  • Teeter Dobbs, B. J. & Jacob, M. C. (1995). Newton and the culture of Newtonianism. Atlantic Highlands: NJ: Humanities Press International.
  • Thagard, P. (1998). Explaining disease: Correlations, causes, and mechanisms. Minds and Machines, 8, 6178.
  • Westfall, R. S. (1986). The construction of modern science: Mechanisms and mechanics. New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Windschitl, M., Thompson, J., & Braaten, M. (2008). Beyond the scientific method: Model based inquiry as a new paradigm of preference for school science investigations. Science Education, 92(5), 941967.