Simulating the controllability of feebates


  • Andrew Ford

    1. Program in Environmental Science and Regional Planning, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-4430, U.S.A.
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    • Andrew Ford is associate professor of environmental science and regional planning at Washington State University. He was formerly a staff member of the Energy Systems and Policy Group, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and associate professor of systems management at the University of Southern California. Dr. Ford has consulted with energy companies and state agencies on the use of modeling. At WSU, he teaches system dynamics with applications to environmental issues in the West. His current research concentrates on the use of simulation modeling to aid in policy analysis in the energy industry.


System dynamics is used to simulate the impact of feebates to encourage the sale of cleaner vehicles in southern California. With a feebate system, fees would be imposed on dirty vehicles to finance rebates for clean vehicles. The model is used to learn whether the State of California could operate a feebate system in a financially prudent manner. I consider an example in which fees are imposed on conventional vehicles, and rebates are used to encourage the sale of electric vehicles. The simulations show that feebates can be controlled despite the many uncertainties in predicting the future sales of both conventional and electric vehicles.