This is the extended version of the authors' paper entitled Hiding Data in OFDM Symbols of IEEE 802.11 Networks presented at Second International Workshop on Network Steganography (IWNS 2010) co-located with The 2010 International Conference on Multimedia Information Networking and Security (MINES 2010), Nanjing, China, 4–6 November, 2010.
Steganography in IEEE 802.11 OFDM symbols†
Article first published online: 29 MAR 2011
Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Security and Communication Networks
Volume 9, Issue 2, pages 118–129, 25 January 2016
How to Cite
2016) Steganography in IEEE 802.11 OFDM symbols. Security Comm. Networks, 9: 118–129. doi: 10.1002/sec.306., and (
- Issue published online: 28 DEC 2015
- Article first published online: 29 MAR 2011
- IEEE 802.11;
- information hiding;
- physical layer
This paper presents a new steganographic method called wireless padding (WiPad). It is based on the insertion of hidden data into the padding of frames at the physical layer of wireless local area networks (WLANs). A performance analysis based on a Markov model, previously introduced and validated by the authors, is provided for the method in relation to the IEEE 802.11 a/g standards. Its results prove that maximum steganographic bandwidth for WiPad is as high as 1.1 Mbit/s for data frames and 0.44 Mbit/s for acknowledgment frames. To the authors' best knowledge this is the most capacious of all the known steganographic network channels. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.