• cooperative immune model;
  • ad hoc networks;
  • security;
  • collaborative attacks


In this paper, a security problem of cooperative immunization against collaborative attacks such as blackhole attacks and wormhole attacks, in the mobile ad hoc networks such as the Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access (WiMAX) networks, was discussed. Because of the vulnerabilities of the protocol suites, collaborative attacks in the mobile ad hoc networks can cause more damages than individual attacks. In human immune system, nonselfs (i.e., viruses, bacteria and cancers etc.) can attack human body in a collaborative way and cause diseases in the human body. With the inspiration from the human immune system, a tri-tier cooperative immune model was built to detect and eliminate the collaborative attacks (i.e., nonselfs) in the mobile ad hoc networks. ARM-based Network Simulator (NS2) tests and probability analysis were utilized in the prototype for immune model to analyze and detect the attacks. Experimental results demonstrate the validation and effectiveness of the model proposed by minimizing the collaborative attacks and immunizing the mobile ad hoc networks. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.