• 1
    Schoch E, Kargl F. On the efficiency of secure beaconing in VANETs. In Proceeding of 3rd ACM Conference on Wireless Network Security (WiSec), 2010.
  • 2
    Kargl F, Schoch E, Wiedersheim B, Leinm T. Secure and efficient beaconing for vehicular networks. In Proceeding of 5th ACM VANET, 2008.
  • 3
    Parno B, Perrig A. Challenges in securing vehicular networks. Workshop on Hot Topics in Networks (HotNets-IV), 2005.
  • 4
    Raya M, Hubaux JP. The security of vehicular ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM workshop on Security of Ad Hoc and Sensor Networks (SASN '05), 2005.
  • 5
    Papadimitratos P, Gligor V, Hubaux J. Securing vehicular communications assumptions, requirements, and principles. In Proceedings of Workshop on Embedded Security in Cars (ESCAR), 2006.
  • 6
    Raya M, Hubaux JP. Securing vehicular ad-hoc networks. Journal of Computer Security 2007; 15(1):3968.
  • 7
    Wang NW, Huang YM, Chen WM. A novel secure communication scheme in vehicular ad-hoc networks. Computer Communications, Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2008.
  • 8
    Vanstone S. Responses to NISTs proposal. Communications of the ACM 1992; 35:5052.
  • 9
    Accredited Standards Committee X9. Public Key Cryptography for the Financial Services Industry, the Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA), American National Standard X9.62-2005, Nov 2005.
  • 10
    IEEE Standard for Information Technology. IEEE P1609.2 – Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE) – Security Services for Application and Management Services, 2006.
  • 11
    Hu YC, Laberteaux KP. Strong VANET security on a budget. In Proceedings of Workshop on Embedded Security in Cars (ESCAR), 2006.
  • 12
    Studer A, Bai F, Bellur B, Perrig A. Flexible, extensible, and efficient vanet authentication. In Proceedings of the 6th Embedded Security in Cars Workshop (ESCAR), 2008.
  • 13
    Perrig A, Canetti R, Tygar JD, Song D. The TESLA broadcast authentication protocol. Cryptobytes 5(2): Summer/Fall 2002.
  • 14
    IEEE Trial-use Standard for Wireless Access in Vehicular Environments (WAVE), IEEE Std 1609.2, 2006. Available at:
  • 15
    Papadimitratos P, Buttyan P, Holczer T, et al. Secure vehicular communications: design and architecture application and management services. IEEE Communications Magazine 2008; 46(11):100109.
  • 16
    Hoffstein J, Pipher J, Silverman JH. NTRU: a new high speed public key cryptosystem. In Proceedings of Algorithmic Number Theory (ANTS III). LNCS 1423, Springer-Verlag, 1998; 267288.
  • 17
    Leinmuller T, Buttyan L, Hubaux JP, et al. Sevecom – secure vehicle communication. In Proceedings of IST Mobile Summit, 2006.
  • 18
    Haas J, Hu YC, Laberteaux K. Real-world VANET security protocol performance. In Proceedings of IEE Globecom Symposium on Selected Areas in Communications, 2009.
  • 19
    Lin X, Sun X, Wang X, Zhang C, Ho PH, Shen X et al. TSVC: timed efficient and secure vehicular communications with privacy preserving. IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications 2008; 7(12):49874998.
  • 20
    Burmester M, Magkos E, Chrissikopoulos V. Secure and privacy-preserving, timed vehicular communication. International Journal of Ad Hoc and Ubiquitous Computing (IJAHUC), Inderscience, To appear.
  • 21
    Ying X, Makrakis D, Mouftah HT. Pre-broadcast based time efficient privacy protocol for secure vehicular communications. In Proceedings of IEEE WiMob. 2010; 607613.
  • 22
    Sun Y, Lu R, Lin X, Shen X. An efficient pseudonymous authentication scheme with strong privacy preservation for vehicular communications. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology 2010; 59(7):35893603.
  • 23
    Schnorr C. Efficient signature generation by smart cards. Journal of Cryptology 1991; 4(3):161174.
  • 24
    Miracl: Multiprecision Integer and Rational Arithmetic C/C++ Library. Available at:
  • 25
    Miyaji A, Nakabayashi M, Takano S. New explicit conditions of elliptic curve traces for FR-reduction. IEICE Trans. Fundamentals 2001; E84-A(5):12341243.
  • 26
    Sun J, Zhang C, Fang Y. An ID-based framework achieving privacy and non-repudiation in vehicular ad hoc networks. In Proceedings of Military Communications Conference (MILCOM), 2007.