Information security using chaotic dynamics is a novel topic in the wireless sensor network (WSN) research field. After surveying analog and digital chaotic security systems, we give a state of the art of chaotic S-Box design. The substitution tables are nonlinear maps that strengthen and enhance block crypto-systems. This paper deals with the design of new dynamic chaotic S-Boxes suitable for implementation on wireless sensor nodes. Our proposed schemes are classified into two categories: S-Box based on discrete chaotic map with floating point arithmetic (cascading piecewise linear chaotic map and a three-dimensional map) and S-Box based on discrete chaotic map with fixed-point arithmetic (using discretized Lorenz map and logistic–tent map). The security analysis and implementation process on WSN are discussed. The proposed methods satisfy Good S-Box design criteria and exceed the performance of Advanced Encryption Standard static S-Box in some cases. The energy consumption of different proposals and existing chaotic S-Box designs are investigated via a platform simulator and a real WSN testbed equipped with TI MSP430f1611 micro-controller. The simulations and the experimental results show that our proposed S-Box design with fixed-point arithmetic Lorenz map has the lowest energy-consuming profile compared with the other studied and proposed S-Box design. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.