• CCM;
  • CCMP block cipher mode;
  • OCB;
  • GCM;
  • AE;
  • AEAD;
  • IEEE four-way handshake;
  • TKIP


CCM/CCMP is a two-cycle authenticate and encrypt (AE) mode. One cycle is used to perform confidentiality computations, and the second cycle is used to compute authenticity and integrity. CCM/CCMP is also a generic composition. CCM/CCMP is actually made up of two separate modes, CBC-MAC and AES counter mode amalgamated together. Although CCM/CCMP is an AE mode, it is not an authenticated encryption with associated data (AEAD) mode. Previous research has suggested that it is a major deficiency for an AE mode not to be an AEAD. Previous critiques of the CCM/CCMP have shown that CBC-MAC and AES counter mode were poorly amalgamated to create the CCM/CCMP. They also showed that CCMP, which was ratified by the IEEE 802.11i workgroup in 2003 and implemented in WPA2, has some security issues. It also has some major efficiency and complexity issues. This research work reviewed the current major AE and AEAD modes such as the Galois counter mode, and the encryption system with keyed integrity and managed oracle and used critical analysis and statistical analysis approaches to identify more deficiencies in the CCM/CCMP. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.