This article contributes to the emerging theory of opportunity creation by examining how organizations (including entrepreneurial ones) create and transform their niches. Using insights from contemporary evolutionary theory, the article classifies types of niche construction activities along dimensions of governance and the nature of the strategic actor. It then focuses on mechanisms of niche construction governed by the focal organization or entrepreneur to explain how competitive imperfections can be induced within industries and markets. The central role of communicative strategies in niche construction is emphasized. Copyright © 2009 Strategic Management Society.