The present revolution in novel organic materials is driven by the synthesis of new materials exhibiting specific functional properties. Traces of silicon compounds are often present in these materials and, although the bulk concentrations of these impurities may be low, segregation can seriously modify the surface composition. Surfaces and interfaces play an important role in many applications, and the intrinsic properties of the materials are thus often obscured by the presence of segregated impurities.
By studying silicon impurity segregation in poly-dialkoxy phenylenevinylene (PPV), polycarbonate and dendrimer macromolecules, we demonstrate how low-energy ion scattering may be used to determine the surface impurity fraction and to observe which groups at the surface are shielded by the segregated species. We demonstrate that the performance of PPV- based light-emitting diodes is significantly reduced for submonolayer coverages of siloxanes. We find that the kinetics of the segregation process depend strongly on the materials and the sample preparation conditions.
We find that the presence of solvents is needed to enable segregation at room temperature. Heating does enable siloxane impurity segregation in polycarbonate in the solid phase, whereas for polydimethylsiloxane in PPV films we find that segregation in the solid phase does not occur up to 200 °C. The siloxane molecules are found to segregate to preferential sites at the surface, shielding the polar groups. Finally, we demonstrate that purification of the surface is often possible through simple procedures that provide an easy way to study the intrinsic properties of the materials. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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