Silane grafting of TiO2 nanoparticles: dispersibility and photoactivity in aqueous solutions



Titania nano-sized particles were treated by various amounts of tetraethyl orthosilicate precursor. The extent of grafting was characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy techniques, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray fluorescence and zeta potential measurements. Sedimentation behaviour of titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles in aqueous solutions was evaluated visually and using a separation analyser. Photocatalytic activity of nanoparticles was studied by photo-activated degradation reaction of Rhodamine B dyestuff in aqueous solutions. The results showed that grafted particles had acquired enhanced dispersion stability and lower photocatalytic activity in aqueous solutions. Untreated TiO2 dispersions settled rapidly and sedimentation completed within 24 h through the coagulation mechanism, whereas that of the silica-treated nanoparticles, depending on the silica content, showed different degrees of stability by flocculation mechanism. Photodebleaching of Rhodamine B in the presence of treated nanoparticles is evident by weaker intensity of UV absorption peak of 554 nm due to lowering concentration of Rhodamine B accompanied with the blue shift in UV absorption peaks. However, untreated TiO2 nanoparticles showed only weaker intensity of UV absorption peak. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.