The aramid fibers-reinforced polyimide composites filled with talc were fabricated by means of a hot press molding technique, and mechanical and tribological behaviors were comparatively investigated. Experimental results showed that the elastic modulus of the composites increased with an increase of the talc, but the impact intensity and loss factor decreased. Besides, the coefficient of friction decreased with the increase of the talc content. To contrast the effects of the ultrahigh vacuum (VC), ultraviolet (UV) or atomic oxygen (AO) on the composites, experiments without irradiation or after UV or AO irradiation were conducted. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis showed that UV or AO irradiation can change the surface structure and chemical composition of the polymer because of the photooxidation and chemical erosion. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.