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Thickness dependence of the structural, mechanical and electrical properties of Ni films deposited on polyimide by ion beam-assisted deposition (IBAD)


Correspondence to: Tianmin Shao, State Key Laboratory of Tribology, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, P.R. China.



Ni thin films with different thicknesses were deposited on pre-treated polyimide substrates by ion beam-assisted deposition. Dependence of structural, mechanical and electrical properties of the Ni films on their thickness was investigated. The results showed a clear correlation between film properties and film thickness. The inter-diffusion at the interface regions of the films with different deposition time were demonstrated by transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. With increasing film thickness, surface roughness of the Ni films firstly decreased and then increased, while the grain size gradually increased. Residual stress of the Ni thin films decreased with increasing Ni film thickness up to 202 nm and then slightly increased as the film thickness further increased. Resistivity decreased, and temperature coefficient of resistivity (TCR) increased with increasing film thickness due to the enhancement of crystallization degree and the increase in grain size. The decrease in surface roughness and residual stress also contributed to the decrease of resistivity and the increase of TCR of the films. An optimal film thickness is suggested, which yielded a relatively high TCR value and low levels of both surface roughness and residual stress. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.