We consider estimation of various probabilities after termination of a group sequential phase II trial. A motivating example is that the stopping rule of a phase II oncologic trial is determined solely based on response to a drug treatment, and at the end of the trial estimating the rate of toxicity and response is desirable. The conventional maximum likelihood estimator (sample proportion) of a probability is shown to be biased, and two alternative estimators are proposed to correct for bias, a bias-reduced estimator obtained by using Whitehead's bias-adjusted approach, and an unbiased estimator from the Rao–Blackwell method of conditioning. All three estimation procedures are shown to have certain invariance property in bias. Moreover, estimators of a probability and their bias and precision can be evaluated through the observed response rate and the stage at which the trial stops, thus avoiding extensive computation. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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